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5th C. Western Roman Kits Persons Timeline Etc. (24 May 09)
The exhibition looked amazing and extremely up-to-date Confusedhock:
Therefore, the catalogue is a must-have-it for me!
Unfortunately, a quick search on Oxbow an Amazon has yielded no results... Sad
Should I try to order it directly from the Withworth? :?

It\'s all an accident, an accident of hands. Mine, others, all without mind, from one extreme to another, but neither works nor will ever.

Rolf Steiner
Hello Aitor

Yes, the exhibition was impressive with some amazing items on display. I think it would be best to order direct from the Whitworth. If you have any problems let me know.

I myself ordered another past exhibition catalogue from the Musee Dobree in France called 'Au Fil Du Nil' which is another must have for you late Romans.

"Is all that we see or seem but a dream within a dream" Edgar Allan Poe.

"Every brush-stroke is torn from my body" The Rebel, Tony Hancock.

"..I sweated in that damn dirty armor....TWENTY YEARS!', Charlton Heston, The Warlord.
Thanks again Graham! Big Grin
I'll e-mail them to ask about the book.
Another book, uh, what's the best one from the pair in your opinion? :?

It\'s all an accident, an accident of hands. Mine, others, all without mind, from one extreme to another, but neither works nor will ever.

Rolf Steiner
Hi Aitor

Without checking, the Manchester one seems to have more complete garments and a greater range, hats etc...

The Dobree Museum book has lots of details of the Coptic designs themselves.

I have both but no reconstructed late Helmet or sword or great outfit like yours. Sadly like you money has to be budgeted. Cry

"Is all that we see or seem but a dream within a dream" Edgar Allan Poe.

"Every brush-stroke is torn from my body" The Rebel, Tony Hancock.

"..I sweated in that damn dirty armor....TWENTY YEARS!', Charlton Heston, The Warlord.
Then, why has one spoken and written so much of this image as representation of Galla Placidia and her children? I don't understand it. Confusedhock: Confusedhock: Confusedhock:

In house I have several books that they speak about this empress and in one of them this photo appears in the front page; the book titles:Galla Placidia from Pablo Fuentes Hinojo.

You have reason Graham, we must to spend more in books and less in Internet.... :wink:
[Image: vexilium.jpg]
Hello Carme

Quote:Then, why has one spoken and written so much of this image as representation of Galla Placidia and her children? I don't understand it.

In house I have several books that they speak about this empress and in one of them this photo appears in the front page; the book titles:Galla Placidia from Pablo Fuentes Hinojo.

It is probably more attractive in publishing terms to say, this is Galla Placidia and her family rather than say we do not have a clue who these people are!

"Is all that we see or seem but a dream within a dream" Edgar Allan Poe.

"Every brush-stroke is torn from my body" The Rebel, Tony Hancock.

"..I sweated in that damn dirty armor....TWENTY YEARS!', Charlton Heston, The Warlord.
Many thanks for the information, Graham. I'll try to go for the Manchester book! Big Grin
There was a time in which I could pay both for outfit and lots of books... but that was before I become a father... :roll:


You musn't believe anything you hear and only half of what you actually see... unless you ae able to check it properly! :wink:

It\'s all an accident, an accident of hands. Mine, others, all without mind, from one extreme to another, but neither works nor will ever.

Rolf Steiner

You musn't believe anything you hear and only half of what you actually see... unless you ae able to check it properly! :wink:


Yes, you're right!!!!!!!

Thanks Graham!
[Image: vexilium.jpg]
Greetings! I'm resuming my work on 5th century Western Roman civilian impressions. I hope to finish by mid-2010. (Sooner would be nice.)

Now, I am resuming my search for place & period authentic makers and suppliers of common clothing, sandals, belts, hats, bags, personal and household items, tools (cleric, monk, scribe, painter, and stone mason), etc.

With U.S. dollar devaluation, Value Added Tax, overseas shipping costs, less "free" personal funds than I'd like, etc., these things all somewhat limit my buying options. C'est la vie.

I'll resume my efforts with new Google searches, and with this post. I would appreciate fellow RAT members' leads and recommendations on applicable makers, suppliers, email addresses, website links, etc.

Please accept my thanks in advance for your help. Best regards, +r

P.S. For readers' convenience, I put my 5th c. Western Roman civilian kit item on, and moved the 5th century "Romans, Allies, and Enemies" character lists up to the first post in this series. These lists are ad hoc, perpetual drafts in progress.
Wm. / *r
is there any difference in the 5th century tunic construction vs say the 3rd or 4th century ones? from looking, it seems the 6th century ones are narrower with side gores etc.
Tiberius Claudius Lupus

Chuck Russell
Keyser,WV, USA
Quote:is there any difference in the 5th century tunic construction vs say the 3rd or 4th century ones? from looking, it seems the 6th century ones are narrower with side gores etc.
Good question. 30-minute Goggle search was inconclusive.

Uncited sources indicate generally "yes" for 6th century tunics, generally "no" for 4th century tunics, but no indications for 5th century tunics.

One website indicates "no" for Egyptian late 4th to early 5th century: ... /tech.html

Anyone know the answer & solid citation(s) off-hand?

Thx. +r
Wm. / *r
5th C. Western Roman, Allied & Enemy Characters List (work in slow progress)

Western Romans ... ian_saints
• St. Jerome of Stridon (c. 340/347 Stridon, Dalmatia-Pannonia border–420 near Bethlehem, Judea): priest, ascetic, apologist; translated Latin Bible "Vulgate" 382–405
• St. Augustine of Hippo (354 Thagaste, Numidia–430 Hippo Regius, Numidia): philosopher, theologian, priest, bishop of Hippo Regius, wrote “Confessions” and “City of God”
• St. John Cassian (c. 360 Dobruja, Romania–435 Marseille, France): mystic, theologian, writer, "Desert Fathers." Palestine, Egypt, Constantinople c. 399, Rome 404, Antioch? 404–415, Marseille 415-435; founded monastic complex in Marseille for men and women 415, among first such institutes in west, a model for later monasteries; wrote "Institutes" and "Conferences,” made monasticism more accepted in the west, influenced St. Benedict and many afterwards.
• St. Germanus of Auxerre (c. 378–448): lawyer, provincial governor; bishop of Auxerre, visited Britain c. 429 with St. Lupus of Troyes to end Pelagianism there
• St. Lupus of Troyes (c. 383 Toul–c. 478 Troyes): bishop of Troyes c. 426, visited Britain c. 429 with St. Germanus of Auxerre to end Pelagianism there
• St. Patrick (c. 387 Britain–492/3): captured slave, mission to Ulster and Connacht, Ireland, patron saint of Ireland
• St. Palladius (408/431–c. 457/461): priest c. 415, first bishop of Ireland, mission to Leinster, Ireland
• St. Brigid of Kildare (or Brigid of Ireland) (c. 451 Faughart near Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland–c. 525 near Kildare, Ireland): nun 468, abbess c. 470, founded several convents
• St. Apollinaris of Valence (c. 453 Vienne, France–c. 520): priest, bishop of Valence, France c. 486–c. 520
• St. Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 Norcia, Umbria, Italy–c. 547 Monte Cassino, Italy): twin brother of St. Scholastica, monk, founded 12 monasteries, wrote basis for "Rule of Saint Benedict"
• St. Scholastica (c. 480–547): twin sister of St. Benedict of Nursia, nun, abbess
• St. Severinus of Noricum (c. 410 southern Italy or north Africa–482 Favianae, Noricum): known as “Apostle to Noricum;” fed the starving, redeemed captives, founded refugee centers and monasteries ... rchbishops
• Pope St. Anastasius I (???–401): pope 399–401
• Pope St. Innocent I (???–417): pope 401–417
• Pope St. Zosimus (???–418): pope 417–418
• Pope St. Boniface I (???–422): pope 418–422
• Pope St. Celestine I (??? Rome, Italy–432 Rome, Italy): pope 422–432
• Pope St. Sixtus III (???–440 Rome, Italy): pope 432–440
• Pope Leo I (or Pope St. Leo the Great) (c. 400 Tuscany, Italy–461 Rome, Italy), pope 440–461; met Attila the Hun outside Rome, persuaded him to turn back 452
• Pope St. Hilarius (??? Sardinia, Italy–468 Rome, Italy): pope 461–468
• Pope St. Simplicius (??? Tivoli, Italy–483): pope 468–483, helped barbarian raid victims in Italy, managed Rome administration, maintained Rome’s authority in the West
• Pope St. Felix III (??? Rome, Italy–492 Rome, Italy): pope 483–492
• Pope St. Gelasius I (??? Roman Africa or Rome, Italy–496 Rome, Italy): pope 492–496
• Pope Anastasius II (???–498 Rome, Italy): pope 496–498
• Pope St. Symmachus (??? Sardinia, Italy–514): pope 498–514 ... ry_bishops
• Bishop Sidonius Apollinaris (c. 430 Lyons, France–c. 489): poet, diplomat, Urban Prefect of Rome 467/8–470, Patrician and Senator 470/2?; Bishop of Auvergne (Clermont, now Clermont-Ferrand) 470/2?–480 ... Christians
• Prudentius (Aurelius Prudentius Clemens; c. 348 Tarraconensis (n. Spain)–c. 413 Spain?): lawyer, twice provincial governor, courtier of Theodosius I; then ascetic, Christian poet, wrote "Psychomachia."
• Pelagius (c. 354 Britain?–c. 420/440 Palestine?): ascetic; denied original sin doctrine
• Sulpicius Severus (c. 363 Aquitania–c. 425): lawyer; Christian historian, protégé of St. Martin of Tours
• Vigilantius (c. 370 Aquitania–after 403): presbyter, opposed veneration of saints & relics
• Paulus Orosius (c. 375 Galicia–418? north Africa?): Christian historian, theologian, priest, protégé of St. Augustine
• Salvian (or Salvianus) (c. 400/405–4):
• Dionysius Exiguus (c. 470 Dobruja, Romania–c. 544): monk, inventor of the Anno Domini era c. 525 AD ... ury_people ... ury_Romans ... in_writers
• Vegetius (Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus; c. 360–c. 400): wrote "Epitoma rei militaris," aka "De Re Militari" (edited, finalized by c. 450)
• Boethius (c. 480–524/525): consul 510, magister officiorum for Theodoric the Great 520–523, philosopher, wrote "Consolation of Philosophy;" accused of treason, imprisoned, executed.
• Cassiodorus (or Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator) (c. 485 Scylletium [Squillace], near Catanzaro, southern Italy–c. 585): quaestor c. 507–511, consul 514, Magister Officiorum for Theodoric the Great and 523–536/7; writer, monk c. 540, founded Vivarium monastery in southern Italy, librarian
• Macrobius (Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius; 04c Africa–05c): grammarian, Neoplatonist philosopher ... ury_rulers
• Emperor Honorius (Flavius Honorius; 384–423): ruled 393–423
• Emperor Constantius III (Flavius Constantius; ??? Naissus (Niš, Serbia)–421): co-ruled 421
• Emperor Valentinian III (Flavius Placidus Valentinianus; 419 Ravenna Italy–455): ruled 425–455
• Emperor Petronius Maximus (Flavius Petronius Maximus; c. 396–455): ruled only 2.5 months 455
• Emperor Avitus (Eparchius Avitus; c. 395–456/457): ruled 455–456
• Emperor Majorian (Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus; 420–461): ruled 457–461
• Emperor Libius Severus (Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius; ??? Lucania–465): ruled 461–465
• Emperor Anthemius (Procopius Anthemius; c. 420 Constantinople–472): ruled 467–472, backed by Leo I, later opposed by Ricimer, murdered/executed by Gundobad.
• Emperor Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius; c. 430 Rome, Italy–472): unwillingly made emperor by Ricimer; ruled 472–472, died from hydropsy (natural cause)
• Emperor/Usurper Glycerius (c. 420–after 480): Comes domesticorum; made emperor by Gundobad; ruled 473–474, opposed by Leo I; surrendered to Julius Nepos, resigned title, made bishop of Salona (or Milan?)
• Emperor Julius Nepos (c. 430–480 Dalmatia): ruled from Italy 474–475; opposed by Flavius Orestes, fled to Dalmatia without fight 475; ruled Dalmatia and Gaul from Dalmatia 475–480; assassinated 480.
• Emperor/Usurper Romulus Augustus (aka Romulus Augustulus [Little Augustus]; c. 461/3–475 or 5??): son of Flavius Orestes, who made him emperor; ruled Italy 475–476; abdicated to Odoacer 476; exiled to Naples, Italy (or executed?).
• Empress Galla Placidia (c. 390–450):
• Empress Licinia Eudoxia (422–462): ... n_usurpers
• Usurper Marcus (???–407): ruled Britain 406–407
• Usurper Gratian (???–407): ruled Britain 407, killed by troops
• Usurper Constantine III (Flavius Claudius Constantinus; 3??–411): ruled Britain & Gaul 407–411, against Honorius
• Usurper Jovinus (??? Gaul–413 Narbonne): ruled Gaul 411–412, co-ruled Gaul with Sebastianus 412–413
• Usurper Sebastianus (???–413): co-ruled Gaul with Jovinus 412–413
• Usurper Priscus Attalus (???–after 416): ruled Rome 409, southern Gaul 414
• Usurper Joannes (3??–425 Aquileia): primicerius notariorum; ruled 423–425, against Valentinian III.
• General Stilcho (Flavius Stilicho; c. 359–408):
• Comes Bonifacius (Count Boniface; ???–432): governor Diocese of Africa, magister militum praesentalis, patrician; sometimes called "Last of the Romans;" invited, sent Vandals to Africa; lost Africa to Vandals; won Battle of Rimini (aka Battle of Ravenna) against Flavius Aëtius 432, but mortally wounded, died several months later, making Aëtius de facto ruler of Western Empire.
• General Flavius Aëtius (c. 396–454): general, dux, patrician; with mostly germanic army, won Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (or Chalons) against Attila/Huns 451.
• General Aegidius (???–464/465 Loire, France): Magister Militum of Gaul under Aëtius c. 450s–464; rebelled, created/ruled Western Roman rump state of Domain of Soissons 457–464; died by poison or ambush?
• Comes Paulus (???–464/465): succeeded Aeidius, ruled Domain of Soissons 464; killed by Childeric I/Salian Franks.
• Dux Syagrius (430–486/487): son of Aegidius; last Magister Militum of Gaul, ruled Domain of Soissons 464–486; lost Battle of Soissons against Clovis I/united Franks 486; sought refuge with Alaric II/Visigoths; imprisoned by Alaric II under Clovis I war threat; sent to Clovis I/Franks, secretly executed/murdered (stabbing?) 486/487.
• General Ricimer (c. 405–472): Suebian, Arian; fought under Flavius Aëtius; patrician by Leo I; de facto ruler of Western Empire, set up and ruled through series of four figurehead emperors 457-472; died of malignant fever.
• General Flavius Orestes (4?? Pannonia Savia–476 Piacenza, Italy): aristocrat, probably part Germanic; secretary (notarius) in Attila's court 449 and 452, twice Attila's envoy to Valentinian III in Constantinople 449; appointed magister militum and patrician 475–476 by Julius Nepos; took government control 475; not recognized by rival Eastern Emperors Zeno and Basiliscus; made his son Romulus Augustus Emperor 475; executed by Odoacer 476.

Eastern Romans ... ine_people
• Emperor Arcadius (377/378 Spain–408): first son of Theodosius I, brother of Honorius; ruled 395–408, dominated by praetorian prefect Rufinus 395; dominated by advisor, eunuch Eutropius, and by wife Aelia Eudoxia 395–404, dominated by praetorian prefect Anthemius 404–408.
• Emperor Flavius Theodosius (Theodosius II; 401–450): ruled 408–450; dominated by praetorian prefect Anthemius until dismissed 413, then by oldest sister Pulcheria; Anthemius supervised building Constantinople Theodosian Walls 408-413; created University of Constantinople 425 (world's first university?); commissioned Roman law compilation (years 313 to 437) "Codex Theodosianus" 429–438; died from riding accident 450.
• Emperor Flavius Marcianus (Marcian; 396 Thrace or Illyria–457): soldier, fought Persians, Vandals; captured near Hippo Regius; released on oath to King Geiseric to never fight against Vandals; Captain of the Guards, Tribune, Senator; ruled 450–457; ended tribute payments to Attila/Huns, who became the West’s problem in Gaul and Italy (knowing they could not capture Constantinople); made economic and financial reforms, Eastern Empire recovered from impoverishing Hun attacks; Council of Chalcedon 451; repelled attacks on Syria, Egypt 452; quelled Armenian frontier disturbances 456; did not overtly aid Western Roman Empire with Hun and Vandal attacks; died of disease, possibly gangrene from long religious journey.
• Emperor Flavius Valerius Leo (Leo I or Leo the Thracian; 401–474): Comes; last emperor magister militum Aspar the Alan enthroned, thinking Leo would be easy puppet ruler; ruled 457–474; known as Magnus Thrax (Great Thracian) by supporters, and Leo the Butcher by enemies; oversaw many political and military plans, mostly to aid Western Empire and recover former territories; East Goths and Huns repeatedly attack Balkans.
• Emperor Flavius Leo Iunior (Leo II; 467–474): son of Zeno and Ariadne (Leo I's daughter); ruled January–November 474, with father Zeno as colleague; died of unknown disease 474; rumored maybe poisoned by mother Ariadne for husband Zeno to become Emperor.
• Emperor Flavius Zeno (originally Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus; ca. 425 Isauria–491 Constantinople): magister militum; ruled 474–475 and 476–491.
• Emperor Flavius Basiliscus (???–476/477 Cappadocia): Miaphysite; led failed invasion of Vandal Africa 468; ruled 475–476, took power after Emperor Zeno fled Constantinople revolt; supported Miaphysite christology, opposed widely accepted Chalcedonian christology; appointed loyal men to key positions, antagonized many important figures in imperial court; Zeno returned almost unopposed, captured and killed Basiliscus and his family 476/477.
• Flavius Anastasius (or Anastasius I; c. 430 Dyrrhachium–518 Constantinople): Miaphysite; palace official (silentiarius); made Emperor 491 by Zeno's widow Ariadne, who married him soon afterwards; ruled 491–518; won Isaurian War 492-496 against supporters of Longinus of Cardala, Zeno's brother; coinage reform 498; impasse in Sassanid War with Persians 502-505; Slavs and Bulgarians invaded Balkans.
• Empress Aelia Eudoxia (c. 380–404):
• Empress Aelia Pulcheria (399–453):
• Empress Eudocia Augusta (c. 401–460):

Alans (or Alani) (Iranian nomadic tribe)

Alamanni: (West Germanic tribal alliance)

Burgundians: (East Germanic tribe)
• Gjúki (also Gebicca, Gifica, Gibica, Gebicar, Gibicho, or Gippich) (3??– 406/7): king of the Burgundians (3??– 406/7)
• Gundomar I (also Gundimar, Godomar, or Godemar) ():king of Burgundy 406/7–411
• Giselher (??? –before 436): king of Burgundy 411–???
• Gunther (??? –437?): semi-legendary king of Burgundy ??? –437?
• Gondioc (???-473): king of Burgundy 437?–473
• Gundobad (???–516 peaceful): Patrician of Western Empire 472-473, king of the Burgundians 473-516; died peacefully

Franks: (West Germanic tribal confederation)
• Chlodio (395-448): Merovingian king of Salian Franks 428–448; defeated at Vicus Helena by Flavius Aëtius/Romans and allies
• Merovech (Merovius; ???-4??): legendary Merovingian king of Salian Franks 448–457/458?
• Childeric I (c. 440–c. 481): Merovingian king of Salian Franks 457/458–c. 481
• Clovis I (c. 466–511) King of united Franks c. 481–511, converted Franks to Catholicism


Gepids (East Germanic Gothic tribe)

Heruli: (Germanic nomads)
• Odoacer (or Odovacar; 435–493 Ravenna, Italy): Scirian-Germanic, Arian; foederati band leader 470, magister militum and patrician 475; executed Flavius Orestes, forced Romulus Augustus to abdicate 476; proclaimed "King of Italy" by Germanic foederati (Scirians and Heruli) and much of Italic Roman army 476; renounced meaningless Emperor title; ruled Kingdom of Italy 476–493; retained Roman administration, senate, law and tax system of Italy; took Sicily from Vandals 476–477, Dalmatia from Julius Nepos by 480; fought Zeno backed Theodoric/Ostrogoths 488–493; signed treaty with Theodoric to share rule of Italy 493; in treaty banquet, after making toast, Theodoric killed Odoacer with his own hands.


Lombards (Langobardi):

Ostrogoths: (Goth [East Germanic tribe] branch)
• Videmir (???–???): Amal king of the Ostrogoths (???–???)
• Theodemir (???–454?): Arian, Amal king of the Ostrogoths (???–454?)
• Theodoric the Great (454–526): Arian, Amal king of the Ostrogoths 471-526, consul 484, ruled Italy 493–526, regent of the Visigoths 511–526

• Riothamus (???–???): Romano-British military leader, active c. 470, maybe “Ambrosius Aurelianus,” possible "King Arthur"
• Ambrosius Aurelianus (???–???): ruled 479–???, maybe “Riothamus,” possible "King Arthur"

Suebi: (Germanic people)

Vandals: (East Germanic tribe)
• Godigisel (359–406): King of the Hasdingi Vandals
• Gunderic (379–428): King of the Hasdingi-Silingi Vandals and Alans 407-428
• Genseric (or Gaiseric, Geiseric) (c. 389 Lake Balaton, Hungary– 477 Carthage, Tunisia): King of the Vandals and Alans 428–477
• Huneric (or Honeric) (???–484): King of the Vandals and Alans 477–484
• Gunthamund (c. 450–496): King of the Vandals and Alans 484–496
• Thrasamund (450–523), King of the Vandals and Alans 496–523

Visigoths: (Goth [East Germanic tribe] branch)
• Alaric I (c. 370 Peuce island, Danube mouth, Dobruja, Romania–410 illness Cosenza, Calabria): King of the Visigoths 395–410, sacked Rome 410
• Ataulf (???–415 murdered Barcelona, Spain): King of the Visigoths 410–415
• Sigeric (???–415 murdered Barcelona, Spain): King of the Visigoths (only seven days) 415
• Wallia (or Valia) (???–418): King of the Visigoths 415–418
• Theodoric I (???–451 Battle of Chalons, Troyes, France): King of the Visigoths 418–451
• Thorismund (or Torismond) (???–453 murdered): King of the Visigoths 451–453
• Theodoric II (???–466 murdered): King of the Visigoths 453–466
• Euric (c. 415–484): King of the Visigoths 466–484
• Alaric II (???–507 Battle of Vouillé, Poitiers, France): King of the Visigoths 484–507
Wm. / *r
5th C. Western Roman History Timeline (work in slow progress)

• 401: Fourth century AD starts (according to historians, erroneously calculated by Dionysius Exiguus in what became AD 525). King Radagaisus/Vandals invade Noricum & Raetia. Theodosius II born.
• 402: Vandal Auxiliary general Flavius Stilicho defeats Alaric/Visigoths at Pollentia.
• 403: Stilicho defeats Alaric/Visigoth army in Battle of Verona, forces Alaric to retire. Honorius moves Western capital to Ravenna.
• 405: Stilicho repels Radagaisus/barbarian invasion of Italy. Martyrdom of the Monk Telemachus martyred, stoned to death trying to stop an arena event. Honorius closes the coliseum, officially ends gladiatorial combat in Rome.
• 406: Vandals invade Gaul.
• 407: Legio II Augusta, last legion in Britain, withdraws; Rome abandons province.
• 408: Honorius murders Stilicho. Eastern emperor Arcadius dies, replaced by Theodosius II, age 7.
• 409: Vandals, Suevi & Alans invade Spain, remove it from Roman control. Alaric, after besieging Rome, declares Attalus as emperor.
• 410: Alaric sacks Rome, the first external capture of Rome in about 800 years, deposes Attalus. Alaric dies afterwards. Athaulf becomes new Visigoth king.
• 412–413: Constantius III drives Alaric and the Visigoths from Italy into Gaul.
• 413: Revolt of Heraclius in Africa put down.
• 417: Visigoths settle in Aquitania, Gaul.
• 419: Valentinian III born.
• 420: Ostrogoths settle in Pannonia. St. Jerome dies.
• 421: Constantius III dies.
• 423: Honorius dies. Young Valentinian III becomes Emperor, his mother Placidia is regent.
• 427: Boniface revolts in Africa.
• 429: Invited by Boniface, the Vandals in Spain, under Geiseric invade and conquer Mauretania, then Africa.
• 430: St. Augustine of Hippo dies.
• 430s: Roman general Flavius Aetius campaigns against Visigoths, Burgundians & Franks in Gaul, re-establishes some Roman control.
• 434: Attila becomes King of the Huns.
• 435: King Theodoric I/Visigoths besiege Romans at Narbonne but are defeated by Aetius.
• 436: Aetius defeats Burgundians.
• 438: Theodosius II clarifies Roman law.
• 439: Geiseric/Vandals take Carthage.
• 440: Geiseric/Vandals invade Sicily, bribed to leave.
• 441: Attila/Huns invade Thracia.
• 442: Saxons take Britain, despite pleas for help to Aetius.
• 443: Attila comes to terms with Theodosius II/Eastern Roman Empire, moves focus to the west.
• 447: Attila/Huns invade Moesia.
• 450: Justin I, future Byzantine emperor, born in Illyria. Marcian succeeds Theodosius II, stops paying tribute to Huns.
• 451: Attila/Huns invade/devastate Gaul. Aetius & Theodoric I (Visigoth) defeat Huns, though Theodoric is killed & replaced by Theodoric II.
• 452: Attila/Huns invade Italy. Attila decides to spare Rome & retires.
• 453: Attila dies.
• 454: Hunnic Empire collapses with revolts, internal power struggles & enemy attacks. With Hun threat gone, Valentinian III fears Aetius’ power, murders him. Alemmani invade across the Danube. Aetius supporters murder Valentinian III. Maximus becomes emperor. Geiseric/Vandals, at Valentinian III's widow Eudoxia’s request, invade/sack Rome from Africa. He takes Eudoxia & her daughters, leaving power vacuum in west. Visigoths proclaim Avitus, Aetius’ former general, as western emperor.
• 456: 'Master of Soldiers' Ricimer launches fleet against Vandals’ widescale naval attacks.
• 457: Majorian proclaimed western emperor, recognized by eastern emperor Leo I, who previously replaced Marcian.
• 460: Vandals destroy Majorian's fleet off Cartagena.
• 461: Majorian dies. Libius Severus emperor. 463: Roman general Aegidius prevents Goths from crossing Loire River. 465: Libius Severus dies. Ricimer rules as Patrician under eastern emperor Leo I. 466: King Euric/Visigoths begin conquest of Spain. 467: Eastern Emperor Leo I appoints Roman general Anthemius as western emperor.
• 468: Leo I sends Basiliscus to crush Geiseric/Vandals in Africa, but his army is destroyed.
• 472: Ricimer deposes Anthemius, installs Olybrius as western emperor; both soon fall ill & die.
• 473: Ricimer installs Glycerius as western emperor.
• 474: Leo I dies, replaced by infant grandson Leo II, who dies soon afterwards. Zeno becomes eastern emperor. Julius Nepos becomes puppet western emperor with eastern support.
• 475: Romulus Augustus, son of Hunnic general Orestes installed as 'last Roman Emperor'. Julius Nepos flees to Dalmatia.
• 476: Germanic general Odoacer, commander of troops in Italy, proclaimed King of Italy. He deposes Romulus, offers to rule as King in eastern emperor Zeno’s name. Zeno keeps Julius Nepos as western emperor, Odoacer agrees, but Nepos never returns to Rome. Odoacer issues coins, conducts administration affairs in Nepos’ name until 480. Although technically the last western emperor, Nepos only rules Dalmatia, has no power in the rest of the west.
• 480: Julius Nepos dies in exile in Dalmatia.
• 486: Sygerius escapes to ____ and seeks help, is imprisoned & turned over to ___, then executed. Franks take Romano-Gallic rump state “Kingdom” of Soisson.
• 500: Fifth century AD ends (according to historians, erroneously calculated by Dionysius Exiguus in what became AD 525).
Wm. / *r
As mentioned last year, I plan to create various 5th century Western Roman webpages, photo albums, etc.

Unfortunately, my ISP has been going through major corporate merger the past few years, and I temporarily cannot access my ISP home webpage to create the planned webpages. This too shall pass.

Work continues to collect, process, and name images for the photo albums. Much left to do. I plan to create separate photo albums for groups of similar items, and sort items alphabetically within each group for easier use.

Planned completion: March 2010
Wm. / *r
Quote: 5th C. Western Roman History Timeline (work in slow progress)
How about this one?

Quote:• 400: Alaric/Visigoths invade Italy, capture much of south peninsula.
• 499: Fifth century AD ends.
Ah, now that's a mistake. :wink: The year 401 is the first year of the 5th century, and the year 500 the last one. Like the year 1 is the first year of the Christian Era, and hence of the first century.
Robert Vermaat
FECTIO Late Romans
(Maurikios-Strategikon, book VIII.2: Maxim 12)
[Image: artgroepbutton.jpg]

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