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Valkenburg/Castleford style caliga step by step
#31
Can you provide a list of the tools and materials that you use? For instance, I did a quick check of one particular supplier of leather making tools:
[url:1f1jeoga]http://www.siegelofca.com/view_cat.asp?id=1[/url]
and I see many awls offered of differing lengths and shape. I would think that straight round for most stitches and a curved awl for tunnel stitches.
Titus Licinius Neuraleanus
aka Lee Holeva
Conscribe te militem in legionibus, vide mundum, inveni terras externas, cognosce miros peregrinos, eviscera eos.
<a class="postlink" href="http://www.legiotricesima.org">http://www.legiotricesima.org
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#32
Hi,

Quote:Can you provide a list of the tools and materials that you use?

Good idea, thanks! I'll do asap ...
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#33
I decided to cover the inside of the backseam as well with a strip of leather to prevent chafing of the heel. At the same time I used it fix the overstanding bits of the white leather strips I used for the outside protective leather band. First I drew the upper ends through the overstandin piece of the outside protective leather band

[Image: BackSeam06.jpg]

then covered it with the inside leather band and sew it all fast.

[Image: BackSeam07.jpg]
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#34
OK, I broke down, and following all of the wonderful information that Martin has shared with us, I'm rebuilding my Valkenburg caligae. I made the first pair too big anyways. I have one question for Martin, did you do the back seam twice. a double stitch on both sides? From the diagram in the "Stepping through time", this stitch only shows on a single side:

[Image: RomanEegeSeam.gif]

I'm also thinking that the strip of leather over the seam is just cosmetic.

Oh by the way, I found someone inn Rochester, NY who knew what "Shoemaker's pitch"was. Unfortunately, he couldn't tell me from where to obtain it. I'll stick with bees wax for now.
Titus Licinius Neuraleanus
aka Lee Holeva
Conscribe te militem in legionibus, vide mundum, inveni terras externas, cognosce miros peregrinos, eviscera eos.
<a class="postlink" href="http://www.legiotricesima.org">http://www.legiotricesima.org
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#35
Quote:I have one question for Martin, did you do the back seam twice. a double stitch on both sides? From the diagram in the "Stepping through time", this stitch only shows on a single side:

Yes, but that illustration only serves to show the method as such IMHO. If you read the text on Caligae (p.362) you will find it says:

"The back seam is double stitched with an extremely fine edge/grain on the outside [...] and a more widely spaced edge/flesh overstitch on the inside"

I used the same strength thread this time, but plan to follow this description more literally next time.

As for the covering strip of leather - yes and no. The outside one certainly decorates, but it also protects a seam done with fine yarn and serves to take some sideways stress off it IMHO. If prolonged to go down over the heel and inwards between the sole layers it also takes vertical stress off that section and the piece found in Mainz (cited and shown in a message above somewhere) supports this assumption I think. The inside one simply makes wearing them more comfortable.

Shoemaker's pitch - as I said, I can find some for you here and send it over if you want me to. A good source for tools and more in the US is

http://www.tandyleather.com

I think, they have a big range of products (many thanks to Comerus for this info!). Didn't find shoemaker's pitch, though, but maybe if you contact them they can help.
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#36
on both sides. I did not understand the verbal description in Stepping through time. When they say, "tacked on" , they're referring to a simple running stitch? I'm still in the process of understanding the terminology.

I've purchased stuff from Tandy leather, but they do not carry shoemaker's pitch. I may take you up on your offer as I still have not been able to locate a source in the USA. For now, I'll continue to use waxed thread. I'm in the process of moving, so that has to be completed first. By the way, what is the historical evidence for the use of bees wax versus pitch in roman leather work? My copy of Stepping through time is packed at the moment and I do not recall seeing a mention of this.
Titus Licinius Neuraleanus
aka Lee Holeva
Conscribe te militem in legionibus, vide mundum, inveni terras externas, cognosce miros peregrinos, eviscera eos.
<a class="postlink" href="http://www.legiotricesima.org">http://www.legiotricesima.org
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#37
Quote:So you did stitch the back seam twice, on both sides. I did not understand the verbal description in Stepping through time. When they say, "tacked on" , they're referring to a simple running stitch?

Yes, just as shown in the diagram above (Posted: Mon 20 Feb 2006, 2:59). IIRC "lightly tacked on" refers to the inner strip of leather, as shown in the 2nd pic of my post from Mon 20 Feb 2006, 20:35, so this would make an additional, actually 3rd and 4th seam running down on both sides of the double seam joining the upper halfs themselves.

Quote:By the way, what is the historical evidence for the use of bees wax versus pitch in roman leather work? My copy of Stepping through time is packed at the moment and I do not recall seeing a mention of this.

Good question, I'll have to look through my literature about this ...
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#38
A little diversion in between: my private version of stepping through time - god, how the kids grow. I've made more shoes for them than for me. To the right is the pair of caligae I am working on at the moment, hope to finish them (and this topic) over the weekend.

[Image: alleSchuhe02.jpg]
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#39
On with the last few steps: Before nailing the insole needs to be glued in. I am simply using modern glue here. The main function is to hold the insole right in place during nailing. I decided to try and do what was mostly done with the original caligae, i.e. nailing through all 3 layers, outer, middle and insole. The insole naturally has to be a little bit narrower and shorter than the outer sole. I made a cardboard duplicate of the outer sole and reduced it in size until it was right and I could use it as a pattern for cutting out the leather insoles. For this I'm using purpose tanned insole leather (according to the tanner I'm buying from, don't ask me for any details on this, I'm simply repeating his opinion here).

On to nailing - I'm using a stock of nails I got second hand some years ago. As is always the problem, they are not really reconstructions, but their shape (see pics below) are acceptable IMO as roman nails after a number of miles, with the tips ground away. Most important, the shafts of the nails have to be long enough to reach through all 3 layers and still bend over on the anvil to clench it all fast.

Here are the tools I used: awl to punch small holes to assist setting the nails, pliers to save my fingertips, light hammer for setting the nail, heavy hammer for hammering home the nail so that it clenches fast all 3 layers and finally a shoemaker's anvil (Roman ones didn't look too different as you probably know)

[Image: Nailing03.jpg]

[Image: Nailing08.jpg]
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#40
First I drew a line about 0.8-10mm inwards and parallel to the rim of the outer sole to determine the outer line of nails. I marked the spacing with the awl, varying width according to expected strain and abrasion. To judge this I simply looked at my first pair of caligae, which I made over 10 years ago and which I know to have more than 400km on them.

[Image: Nailing06.jpg]

Follwing the markings I first did the outer line of nails.

[Image: Nailing09.jpg]

[Image: Nailing04.jpg]
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#41
After completing the outer row, I marked and nailed the inner design. I chose the same design as on my old caligae again (as you know there's all kinds of designs, from straight lines to pictorial stuff like tridents, swastikas and such, some occuring all the time, others specific to certain periods).

[Image: Nailing02.jpg]

This is what the insole looks like after nailing...

[Image: Nailing01.jpg]

makes you understand what the originals look like after a few centuries (this one from Mainz)

[Image: OrigBenagelspuren.jpg]

Time needed for cutting insole, glueing it in, preparing nailing design, and nailing (one shoe): 2h 30min
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#42
After putting on the shoe and finetuning the length of the inner cutouts, strap tabs etc. the shoes are finally finished ...

[Image: CompleteCaliga04.jpg]

[Image: CompleteCaliga02.jpg]

[Image: CompleteCaliga01.jpg]

Total time for this one shoe I estimate around 11-12 hours (just saw that in a few places I forgot to add the time needed). Let's not talk about my research time ;-) ) .
This is of course partly due to the fact that it was a first and I didn't do batches of the same production step (making a pair or higher number of like shoes at the same time), so this could perhaps be pushed down by 2-3 hours. For a first try, however, I'd say expect at least 20 hours for a pair if you follow the details above.
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#43
Final note:

Remember that this cannot be termed a full reconstruction howto, as the pattern, though historically acceptable IMO, is not based on a single find. Also some materials are not acceptable for all (I hope I named them all). Still, I think that personally I've made another small step forward in my understanding of this type of roman footwear.

Thanks for reading ...

Epitomators, please wait a bit more before making this into a edited howto, I'd like to go through my messages above and edit them for better understanding where necessary.
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#44
Quote:Remember that this cannot be termed a full reconstruction howto, as the pattern, though historically acceptable IMO, is not based on a single find.
Considering we have a "How To" make explosive sling bullets, I think this passes muster :wink: And yes, I posted that.

Awesome work Martin. Just say when to epitomatorise it.
TARBICvS/Jim Bowers
A A A DESEDO DESEDO!
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#45
Why the hobnails have a letter on the base? I've got some from LaPrevo and have one as well. Are so the original ones?
[Image: 120px-Septimani_seniores_shield_pattern.svg.png] [Image: Estalada.gif]
Ivan Perelló
[size=150:iu1l6t4o]Credo in Spatham, Corvus sum bellorum[/size]
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