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Roman Army Terminology Greek-Latin
#1
Dositheus, Hermeneumata Leidensia, p2, 33; 1 (auctor c.350AD)

33] Περὶ στρατιᾶς De militia
παρεμβολή castra
στρατιώτης miles
ἡγεμών dux
ἔπαρχος praefectus
χιλίαρχος tribunus
ἑκατόνταρχος centurio
ταξίαρχος evocatus
πρωτοστάτης princeps
σημειοφόρος signifer
ναύαρχος navarchus
δεκαδάρχης decurio
πεζοί pedites
ἱππεῖς equites
τοξόται sagittarii
φύλακες custodes
κατόπται speculatores
πολέμιοι hostes
αἰχμάλωτοι captivi
πόλεμος pugna
εἰρήνη pax
τάγμα legio
εἴλη turma
ὅπλα arma
δόρυ hasta
γραμματεύς tesserarius
στόλος classis
λάφυρα spolia
φρούριον praesidium
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[url=http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/info_frame.php?tabelle=Dositheus_cps16&w=§&tree=%3cunknown%3e%20ADJ&lang=0&inframe=1]
34] Περὶ ἀρχόντων De magistratibus
βασιλεύς rex
αὐτοκράτωρ imperator
ἄναξ imperator
σεβαστός augustus
δήμαρχος tribunus plebis
σύγκλητος senatus
ὕπατοι consules
στρατηγός praetor
πρεσβευτής legatus
ταμίας quaestor
ἀγορανόμος aedilis
ὑπατικός consularis
ἀνθύπατος proconsul
ἐπαρχία provincia
συγκάθεδροι assessores
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#2
My Greek is not that good - could anyone transcribe the Greek terminology?
Robert Vermaat
MODERATOR
FECTIO Late Romans
THE CAUSE OF WAR MUST BE JUST
(Maurikios-Strategikon, book VIII.2: Maxim 12)
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#3
(10-19-2017, 10:37 AM)Robert Vermaat Wrote: could anyone transcribe the Greek terminology?

I've found if you copy and paste them into Google Translate as modern Greek, it gives you a (generally) pretty good transliteration, besides a meaningless translation!

So στρατιώτης comes up as 'stratiotis', which does indeed mean soldier (miles in Latin).

However, I think what this list demonstrates is the imprecision of a lot of Latin/Greek military terms. ἡγεμών (igemón, or hegemon) is listed as dux, for example - it can mean that, but it could also refer to a provincial governor (legatus, or praeses), a city curator, or even a council member. Any sort of 'leader'.

τάγμα (tágma) is translated as legion - it could mean that, but the word could also refer to a mounted unit. ταξίαρχος (taxíarchos) becomes 'evocatus', but the word could also mean a centurion, a tribune or a senior commander, and τάξις (taxis) could mean a legion or a cavalry unit.
Nathan Ross
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#4
Likewise, εἴλη (eile) is almost certainly a transliteration of ala.
Michael King Macdona

And do as adversaries do in law, -
Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends.
(The Taming of the Shrew: Act 1, Scene 2)
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