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the 10th legion Fretensis–Antoniniana in Jerusalem
#16
Because the link died?
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Robert Vermaat
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FECTIO Late Roman Society
THE CAUSE OF WAR MUST BE JUST
(Maurikios-Strategikon, book VIII.2: Maxim 12)
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#17
I ain't claiming to be an expert on the subject, but wasn't the punishment for desertion death? So wouldn't your AWOL Irish legionaries all be killed? Also, since when was the tenth legion stationed in Britain?
(Quote isn't working for me at this moment)
Chris
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#18
(11-04-2014, 10:52 PM)Nathan Ross Wrote: The two parts of this inscription are listed as CIIP-01-02, 00715. You can look it up on Clauss Slaby by typing that into the 'publication' field. Their version of the text is as follows:

Imp(eratori) Cae[sari divi Traiani] / Parthic(i) [f(ilio) divi Nerv]ae nep(oti) / Traiano [Hadri]ano August(o) / pont(ifici) ma[x(imo)] trib(unicia) pot(estate) XIIII / c[o(n)s(uli)] III p(atri) p(atriae) / l[eg(io) X F]reten[sis Antoninia]na{e}

As you can see, the last word is reconstructed from the final 'na' (!!) - I've seen other transcriptions that mention that this word was apparently added in a different hand, presumably later.

However, as Duncan mentions above, the actual inscriptions seem only to have the 'reten' part of the legion title. I don't know if the rest is too faint to be seen on the photograph...

If you enlarge this image to, say, 200%, you can just make out the letters 'NAE' crudely carved to the right of the cut-out. They are much less deeply inscribed than the rest of the lettering and, as has been said, evidently added later.

   
Michael King Macdona

And do as adversaries do in law, -
Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends.
(The Taming of the Shrew: Act 1, Scene 2)
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#19
(09-11-2017, 11:26 PM)Renatus Wrote: you can just make out the letters 'NAE' crudely carved to the right of the cut-out.

So you can! It appears as if somebody just sort of scrawled the extra title onto the end of the inscription...
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#20
A feature of this thread that needs to be addressed is Petertimber's apparent belief that Legio X Fretensis was based in Britain. He or (possibly more probably) whoever is his source may have been misled by RIB 814 (Maryport), an altar erected by M. Censorius Cornelianus, who was or had been a centurion in that legion. The inscription, as it appears on EDCS is:

 Iovi Aug(usto) / M(arcus) Censorius / M(arci) fil(ius) Voltinia / [C]ornelianus |(centurio) leg(ionis) / [X Fr]etensis prae/[posi]tus(?) coh(ortis) I m(iliaria) / Hisp(anorum) ex provincia / Narbone[n(si)] domo / Nemauso [v(otum)] s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito)

There are problems with this inscription. First, his rank as commander of Coh I Hispanorum is uncertain; it could be praepositus or praefectus. Secondly, the symbol interpreted as standing for miliaria looks like 'u', which is unprecedented. Thirdly, I am a bit concerned about the centurial sign, which looks like a very small '7'. Nevertheless, on that point, I have to accept the interpretation of the epigraphists who seem happy with it.

Various explanations of Cornelianus's career have been put forward. Eric Birley suggested that he was a centurion in Leg X Fretensis who led a vexillation from that legion to Britain as part of Hadrian's expeditio Britannica and was subsequently appointed praepositus or temporary commander of Coh I Hispanorum. More recently, it has been proposed that he was praefectus of the cohort and was then appointed centurion in Leg X Fretensis, either travelling to Judaea with Iulius Severus and a vexillation of the cohort or, possibly more probably, was summoned to join the legion in Judaea sometime after Severus's departure from Britain.

Although the centurionate was of lower status than the prefecture, the pay was the same and a centurion had a permanent career, while a prefect had only a short-term posting with no guarantee of another one. Cornelianus may, therefore, have preferred the security of a career as a centurion. Alternatively (my idea), he may have wanted to see action and preferred the prospect of active service in Judaea to garrison duty in Britain. Either way, he may have petitioned Severus for the transfer and erected his altar as a thank-offering to Jupiter, when his request was granted.

These issues are discussed in David J. Breeze, 'The regiments stationed at Maryport and their commanders' in R. J. A. Wilson (ed.) Roman Maryport and its Setting: Essays in Memory of Michael G. Jarrett, Maryport (1997), pp. 73-75. A shorter summary of some of the theories appears here:

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=yH4M...in&f=false
Michael King Macdona

And do as adversaries do in law, -
Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends.
(The Taming of the Shrew: Act 1, Scene 2)
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#21
(09-12-2017, 06:03 PM)Renatus Wrote: whoever is his source may have been misled by RIB 814 (Maryport)

Perhaps, although the theory also seems to involve Ireland and Abruzzo, so I think it's rather more developed than that!

Cornelianus is an interesting figure though - I came across him before when I was looking at officers who might have participated in the Bar Kokhba war (I suspect he didn't - the cohort command would seem more likely after the centurion position, I'd say, although we do have at least one case of a tribune switching to become a centurion, so who knows...)

The reading of the inscription does look a bit odd though. Here's a detailed picture of the stone. Is that U shape a symbol for 'Milliaria' then? Because otherwise it looks very much like it says To, or even Io (for Ioviorum?). And how 'Hispan[anorum] fits in the following line I don't know!

At least the [ ]etensis doesn't look like it could be anything else...


[Image: RIB000814LS.png]
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#22
(09-12-2017, 09:30 PM)Nathan Ross Wrote:
(09-12-2017, 06:03 PM)Renatus Wrote: whoever is his source may have been misled by RIB 814 (Maryport)

Perhaps, although the theory also seems to involve Ireland and Abruzzo, so I think it's rather more developed than that!

I'm not sure about that. The title 'Fretensis' is very specific and must have come from somewhere. I think that the 'Irish legionaries' are pure fantasy and the whole thing seems to be an attempt to explain why some inhabitants of the Abruzzo region have physical characteristics more appropriate to northern Europe than Italy.

(09-12-2017, 09:30 PM)Nathan Ross Wrote: Cornelianus is an interesting figure though - I came across him before when I was looking at officers who might have participated in the Bar Kokhba war (I suspect he didn't - the cohort command would seem more likely after the centurion position, I'd say, although we do have at least one case of a tribune switching to become a centurion, so who knows...)

As I indicated, the current theory is that, after going from Britain to Judaea, Severus summoned Cornelianus, who was then prefect of Coh I Hispanorum, to fill a vacancy for a centurion in Leg X Fretensis.

(09-12-2017, 09:30 PM)Nathan Ross Wrote: Is that U shape a symbol for 'Milliaria' then?

The illustration that you posted is not entirely accurate. The photograph in the Maryport volume that I cited shows a very pronounced 'u' shape, much less 'o'-like than in your illustration or that in RIB. There is also the subscript line which is omitted from your illustration. It has been suggested that the symbol resembles the Greek letter mu and thus could stand for miliaria but I don't see that myself. David Breeze, in his article, treats it as an 'o', possibly indicating that the cohort had been reduced to half-milliary size, the symbol for a milliary unit being 'oo'. This could account for its commander being a prefect, as opposed to the tribune who would normally command a full milliary unit.

(09-12-2017, 09:30 PM)Nathan Ross Wrote: And how 'Hispan[anorum] fits in the following line I don't know!

I don't think that is a problem. The title has been abbreviated to 'Hisp', as per the transcription, or (more probably to my eye) 'His'.
Michael King Macdona

And do as adversaries do in law, -
Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends.
(The Taming of the Shrew: Act 1, Scene 2)
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