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Imp. Gallic Bronze helmet from Sexaginta Prista
#1
Imperial Gallic Bronze helmet from Sexaginta Prista present city Russe (my and my brother  native town).
Information is from the book THE LOWER DANUBE ROMAN LIMES ( 1 st C.AD) with publication from the Limes Congress in Ruse Bulgaria.
http://www.limes2012.naim.bg/programme
This book is published from the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum in Sofia (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences).


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#2
In the book, the size of the helmet are described in detail.
“..On the neckpiece are punched three inscriptions indicating the names of the three consecutive helmet owners. It is interesting that they served in one the same centuria of V Macedonica...”


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#3
On the collar or on the helmet itself there is a lacks any ornamentation !?
Very ordinary and no additional decoration!?
This pictures are provided by Alex Kyrychenko.
How can be defining this helmet by Robinson’s?
Roman bronze infantery helmet, Weisenau type, 1st century AD?
Or Imperial Gallic I (Mainz type)?



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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#4
Two cheeks protectors from the same book:


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#5
It's curios, i think copper-alloy Gallic helmets are one of the type of imperial helmet best represented in arqueological context. I remember i have ordered a custom made Gallic of such type from Jose Manuel Pastor, and researching there are a lot of such kind of helmets.
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#6
The helmet to my eye, using the Robinson system, might be better considered Imperial-Italic due to the lack of "eyebrows" on the front of the bowl. Most of the Imperial-Italics in my copy of Robinson have a circular crest mount with a T-slot in it, which this helmet looks like it had, but was broken off. Being not as familiar with the European typologies, I assume that the Weisenau type combines both Robinson Imperial- types.
For sure my Robinson is well out of date now due to so many more finds and that his chronological classification hasn't held up due to those same finds.
Quinton Johansen
Marcus Quintius Clavus, Optio Secundae Pili Prioris Legionis III Cyrenaicae
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#7
To my eyes, that helmet looks very similar in shape to the original helmet from Mainz which Robinson defined as Imperial Gallic type (I).
The main difference, obviously, is the lack of eyebrows, but it is some years now since Peter Connolly demonstrated that Robinson's use of eyebrows and their shape as diagnostic aspects to establish dates and define types was not nearly as secure as Robinson had suggested (of course, if you read Robinson's introduction, the impression given is that he never intended his typology to become a permanent one, but rather a helpful step in the developing process of publishing and typing helmets {I have often thought that JMC Toynbee's 1939 attempt, which can be found in JRS Vol29, had a lot of merit})

As for crest fittings, the Gallic slide type and the Italic twist type were not the only brands in town. There was also the anther type, which is seen on the Aquincum Gallic (I) and a helmet from the Guttmann collection which was published some years ago by Marcus Junkelmann.

The Gallic (I) from Mainz, like the helmet in the photo above, was without its crest fitting when found (as is the case with a number of very similar copper-alloy helmets) but due to it having been published and then reconstructed before the publication of the Aquincum helmet, the circular patch of solder in the position of the crest fitting was assumed to have been for the twist type, which of course was circular. Had the Aquincum helmet, which features a soldered on Anther type, been published first, then Michael Simkins would possibly not have reconstructed it as he did.

Personally, I think that the helmet above would have featured a soldered on anther type like the Aquincum and Guttmann examples, as would the Mainz type (I) and others like it. With the Simkins reconstruction being so well known, such reconstructions might look odd to us, but then, a lot of Roman equipment would probably look odd to us if we saw it as it originally was.

Crispvs
Who is called \'\'Paul\'\' by no-one other than his wife, parents and brothers. :!: <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/icon_exclaim.gif" alt=":!:" title="Exclamation" />:!:

<a class="postlink" href="http://www.romanarmy.net">www.romanarmy.net
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#8
Dear Rado,

Thank you for the photos.

This helmet has been fully published in Peeva, Sharankov 2006 : E. Peeva, N. Sharankov, A: 1st Century AD Roman Helmet with Inscriptions. Archaeologia Bulgarica X-1, 2006, 25-33; there is also a photo in D'Amato, Raffaele: Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier: From Marius to Commodus 2009. It should be noted that this helmet is not from a certain context and only believed to be from Sexaginta Prista.

The helmet does not fit into Robinson’s categories but hardly any newly found helmets do because they are so narrow. There are quite a number of parallels (all simple helmets in bronze w/o eyebrows and with a crest knob or remains thereof): Cologne (Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, Inv. D.66), river Oude Maas near Alem; a neck guard from Racoşul de Jos–Piatra Detunată, Braşov County, Romania (Florea Costea, Lucica Savu, Valeriu Sîrbu, Radu Ştefănescu, Angelica Bălos, Military Gear Found in the Dacian Fortress of Racoşul de Jos–Piatra Detunată, Braşov County) might belong to this type; and two helmets from private collections (Fischer, Thomas: Die Armee der Caesaren. Archäologie und Geschichte; Cologne 2012, p. 150), (F. Humer, (2006), Exhibition catalogue "Legionsadler und Druidenstab", ISBN 3854602294.).

These are just close parallels w/o eyebrows and there must be half a dozen or so parallels to the more ornate Mainz type helmet in bronze with eyebrows but with a crest knob.

Based on newer finds, crest knobs appear to have been much more popular on Weisenau/Imperial helmets than one would think readying only Robinson. A quick (non-exhausitve) scan through my files (excluding fragments) revealed 12 helmets with a knob, 14 helmets with remains of soldering similar to this helmet which would indicate a knob, 22 helmets of the slide-on type, and 8 helmets with a twist-on cresting arrangement.
Regards,


Jens Horstkotte
Munich, Germany
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#9
I found this helmet published in FB. Very interesting! I do not know what is the history of this Weisenau model? But there are many similarities with our one from Bulgaria.


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#10
This is a helmet from Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, Inv. D.66. It was found in Köln-Mülheim (Cologne), Germany during dredging work in the river Rhine in 1895.

References:
RAT Helmet Database Coolus CI 01 (Müllheim)
Waurick, G., 1976: Die roemischen Militaerhelme von der Zeit der Republik bis ins 3. Jh. n. Chr. 237 S., Mainz, Univ., Diss., 1970
Klumbach, H. (1974), "Römische Helme aus Niedergermanien", (Rheinland-Verlag GMBH Köln)
Petrikovits, H. von, (1967), "Die römischen Streitkräfte am Niederrhein, Kunst und Altertum am Rhein, Bd.13, 58.
Robinson, H.R. (1975), "The Armour of Imperial Rome", (Arms & Armour Press), p.38, No.89.
Lindenschmit, Die Alterthümer unserer heidnischen Vorzeit Vol. V, 189
Lehner, Führer durch das Provinzialmuseum in Bonn (1924), 54
Radnoti,A.: Ein Legionarshelm aus Burlafingen, in: Landkreis Neu-Ulm, Schriftenreihe zur bayer. Landesgeschichte 62, 1962, 157-173 Wagner Festschrift (München 1962), Fn. 38
Regards,


Jens Horstkotte
Munich, Germany
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#11
Preparation for the reconstruction of this Weisenau model from Bulgaria with us continued.
After repeated delays and putting off the project for various reasons I am in the final stage to finish the overall project.
A lot of time and efforts it took me quality making of so-called “pawns”. I found some good examples from which to be lead.
In August I had the opportunity to visit the museum Aquincum. Where I could look in details the Weisenau helmet there. I am glad that I could see this original helmet classified Imperial Gallic 'I' Aquincum.Of course I made my conclusions in this magnificent artifact and saw the mistakes that make the producers of their replicas... I was able to view and many other items there .


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#12
  I did my best my helmet “pawn” to be made in the most correct way of archeology data for this Weisenau model.

I have helmets with similar “pawns” from Deepeeka and DSC. Their helmets are  suitable but.. just the Indian “pawns”  replicas are not made carefully and in details ,but this can be corrected, I can help to improve their quality of helmets “pawns”.

This is my wax work:
 


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#13
Brass complete details ready for installation and tinning.


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#14
Top frontal protectors are initially cast and then forged from a piece of brass. Until they take the necessary shape and position on the forehead of helmet.
Together with my wax work:


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Radostin Kolchev
(Adlocutio Cohortium)
http://legio-iiii-scythica.com/index.php/en/
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#15
Cheeks protectors are missing from the original and I stopped my attention to a model found in Bulgaria during archaeological excavations of this Weisenau model.
Information is from the book THE LOWER DANUBE ROMAN LIMES ( 1 st -6 st C.AD)  
So far replica of this cheeks protectors model is not done before and I am proud that I will be the first one Smile. I made patterns for this model so that it can be multiply.


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Radostin Kolchev
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