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Hidden Gems among the Ruffage
#1
For the campaign of 196 BC, Livy (33 36) states that according to Valerius Antias over 40,000 men (Celts) were killed in that battle, 801 standards captured, together with 732 wagons and a large number of gold chains.

 
However, like many enemy army numbers and casualty list, they are not Celtic but Roman. The figure of over 40,000 men represents two consular armies. The 801 standards are for two consular armies, but include each organisation so you end up with the highly inflated 801 standards, and the 732 wagons are also for two consular armies. However the musician wagons and the artificers are missing. The number of wagons and the number of men, work out to be that for this period a contubernium had ten men.
 
The campaigns from 203 BC to 196 BC, many are fabrications based on a historical event and inserted when there is nothing happening, or the Romans had lost a battle, and this requires a fabricated battle in which revenge is achieved. Livy writes “It is a question amongst the various historians whether it was against the Boii or the Insurbes that the consul marched in the first place, and whether he wiped out his unsuccessful action by a successful one afterwards or whether the victory at Comum was marred by his later disaster amongst the Boii.”
 
The Second Punic War to the Gallic Wars are full of such gross examples of fabricated battles. And many of the enemy army numbers are borrowed from the Roman army. So when the consul Quintius Minucius, who commands a consular army of 20,000 men, has 20,000 Ligurians surrendering, it is Minucius’ 20,000 men surrendering.
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