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Roman military presence in Judea
#1
Herod the great ruled judea till his death in 4bc. Then his kingdom was divided amongst his three sons with archelaus being ruler of Judea, Samaria and Idumea. During this time the land of Israel was a client state of Rome, meaning that the kings can administer the land as they will so long as they pay homage to Rome.


But once Archelaus is disposed in 6ad, the Romans seize his lands and finally gain direct control of Judea, Samaria and Idumea. 

Now my question relates to these early days of Roman government in Judea. I dont seem to recall any need for an entire Legion to be sent here at this time. Judea was just a satellite of Syria so if a threat did arise here, one of the Syrian legions wont be far to come down and suppress it. 
But obviously some military presence has to be made in the newly gained province. So maybe a detatchment from one of the syrian legions may have accompanied Coponoius and helped him administer the Census of Quirinus?
My thought too is that the Romans utilised Archelaus' soldiers and made them into their Auxillaries to be stationed here.

Also, in these early days of Roman government in Judea, where would the majority of soldiers have stayed at. Jerusalem in Antonia or at Caesarea Maritama the capital?
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#2
(01-09-2019, 10:51 AM)Jason Micallef Wrote: some military presence has to be made in the newly gained province. So maybe a detatchment from one of the syrian legions may have accompanied Coponoius and helped him administer the Census of Quirinus?
My thought too is that the Romans utilised Archelaus' soldiers and made them into their Auxillaries to be stationed here.

This is similar to a topic that has come up repeatedly on the board, concerning Roman troops in Judea in the Biblical period generally.

Coponius, like all the early Prefects, was of equestrian rank and therefore unable (it seems) to command legionary troops. Any soldiers he had with him would have been auxiliaries. It appears most likely from the limited evidence available that the early Roman administration 'inherited' the army of Herod, mostly Samarian troops, and reorganised them as several new cohorts perhaps under Roman officers. More details in this post, and supporting quotes a couple of posts down the thread.

A little later several more regular auxiliary cohorts were moved from Syria into the province. You can find more about them in these threads:

Garrison of Jerusalem AD30

Legion near Jerusalem at time of Jesus

Legions in Jerusalem under Pilate

The upshot of all this is that, aside from an expedition into Galilee in 5-4BC involving the legions from Syria, there were probably no legionary troops stationed in Judea prior to AD44-48 and/or the Jewish wars of the AD60s.
Nathan Ross
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