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Roman Shoe Reconstructions
#1
2nd Century Antonine Mans shoe UK size 8-9(estimated) from Bar hill, intended for a roman fashion display.
[attachment=5468]Calcei1BarHillfrontcomplete.jpg[/attachment]

[attachment=5467]Calcei1BarHillcompletesmall.jpg[/attachment]

Upper to sole construction
[attachment=5469]Calcei1BarHillconstructionsmall2.jpg[/attachment]

leather Used: Upper and midsole filler: supple Veg Tanned cowhide 3mm+ thick, Insole: 4mm stiff veg tanned cowhide, Main sole: stiff (but not compressed) Oak tanned Cowhide 8+mm thick total for all 3 layers 15+mm , thread used:Italian linen shoe makers hand stitching thread,front center seam on upper 3 strand cord, main upper to sole 5 strand cord , main sole 6 strand cord hand twisted, binder for thread: beaswax and pine resin mix. you should note the main stitching work is not visible on the completed shoe.


source material: The Leather from "Bar Hill A Roman Fort and its Finds" (BAR 16 1975)
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#2
Wonderful shoe, Ivor :cheer: !
Virilis / Jyrki Halme
PHILODOX
Moderator
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#3
Thanks, Heres a pair of 2nd century shoes from Hardknot fort(mediobogdum) similar footware is found at Barhill and Housesteads. This example was for a museum dummy.... source: Leather found in Mediobogdum, Charlesworth D, Britannia 4 1973.

[attachment=5474]CalcaeHardKnot.jpg[/attachment]

Another 2nd century Antonine shoe from Barhill this one is unfinished and intended for a workshop display, very similar shoe from Saalburg...
source: The Leather from "Bar Hill A Roman Fort and its Finds" (BAR 16 1975)

[attachment=5475]SallburgBarhillsmall.jpg[/attachment]

All the above were Heavily nailed male footware with a pattern similar to this.

[attachment=5476]BarhillSaalburgCutHardknotnailing.jpg[/attachment]

For construction and material see first post.
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#4
Ivor, these shoes are simply fantastic in their quality of construction. Any plans for a tall boot style?
Manius Acilius Italicus
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#5
Quote:Ivor, these shoes are simply fantastic in their quality of construction. Any plans for a tall boot style?

Robert Thanks, I've made tall boots but not for Roman so far, I think the tallest was probarbly a pair of Senators boots based on a statue off if I remember right M.Aurielius a long time ago. I'd certainly make a pair of higher boots, though I dont know any original surviving examples they would have to be based on a statue with clear detail....
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#6
Hi Ivor, this is very nice work!
Love the colour.
What kind of last do you use?
TiTvS Philippvs/Filip
<a class="postlink" href="http://www.legioxi.be">www.legioxi.be
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#7
Ivor... that rings a bell :?
We met at Xanten in June, I recognised the lasts in your "Fell Boot Type1"
TiTvS Philippvs/Filip
<a class="postlink" href="http://www.legioxi.be">www.legioxi.be
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#8
Filip Thanks, I hope you had a good time at Xanten its a shame the sunday was wet but nowhere near as bad as previous years, as to the colour its a combination of the tanning ingredients and the fats used in softening it can vary a lot as well. The photography and lighting can also make a difference so what you see is not allways the actual colour heres an example.

An unpublished shoe found in a well near Harlow in England this is a reconstruction made using the remains of the original, most would think it was a Welzheim shoe or at least based on Welzheim, but when I made the Harlow shoes Welzheim had yet to be published, theres also a very similar set of shoe fragments from an abandoned Roman site in Norfolk which I discovered a little later...

Sorry about the quality of the first pic, pre digital and scanned from a transparency...

Late 2nd, Early 3rd century Womans or Childs shoes.

[attachment=5485]Harlowshoesmall2.jpg[/attachment]

a secound pair made some years later but from the same piece of leather! different camera, lighting background etc

[attachment=5486]Harlowsmall.jpg[/attachment]

Same shoes with flash

[attachment=5487]Harlowsmall1.jpg[/attachment]

The Welzheim shoes exactly the same materials used.

[attachment=5488]WelzheimCalcae.jpg[/attachment]

In situ.

[attachment=5489]ShoesXantenMuseum112small.jpg[/attachment]

Source material for the reconstructions: Harlow shoe: personal observation measurements and drawings taken from the original shoe remains. Welzheim shoes: "Zum Ostkastell von Welzheim" 1999. shoe No 101, fig 47, pg69.

Materials the upper is oak tanned Calf skin, insole/mainsole 4-5mm Veg tanned cowhide(Harlow) 8mm mainsole (Welzheim). total thickness of sole: about 10mm Harlow and 13-14mm Welzheim.
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#9
Before I forget the lasts in the Fell boots are air dried oak(one year per inch of thickness)the ones in the shoes above are dutch poplar cut on site from green wood at Eindhoven iron age village, you could really use any wood except pine, its best roughed out with an axe and an adze and then shaped with a spoke shave, heres a nice roman depiction of a last and tools...

http://homepages.uni-tuebingen.de/peter....erka18.htm
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#10
Another Shoe from Welzheim a multistrap type, Im quite fond off this style of shoe it can be found as far a field as Wales and the northern frontier to Upper Egypt with a lifespan of hundreds of years possibly even into the 7th century, though with major constructional changes.... This example around 200ad.

[attachment=5525]Welzheimmultistrap.jpg[/attachment]

The upper is quite thin and reinforced with broad strips of leather attached by whip stitch to the inside, the double layer is stitched to either the inside of the insole or occasionally the midsole, this is a feature of many roman shoes with thinner uppers and often not shown or visible in drawings pics of originals, the stitching doesnt penetrate the full thickness so is not visible from an external view.

[attachment=5526]Welzheimmultistrapreinforcing.jpg[/attachment]

I've seen this type of reinforcing on roman shoes over a 300+ year period from Saalburg, Mainz and London....

Leather used: Upper Veg tanned Goat skin 1.5mm ,insole veg tanned 4mm, mainsole Oak Tanned cowhide 6mm.

Source Material: "Zum Ostkastell von Welzheim" 1999 shoe No116 pg73.

Shoe based on the one found at Southfleet kent, although this is not a complete reconstruction of the decoration, originally this seems to have had open work in a honeycomb/wheel arrangement bordered extensively by strips of thin flat gilded wire and backed by plain leather? color was said to be purple but now is largely faded.
Materials Goatskin upper, cowhide soles. source: British Museum Catalogue "Roman Britain" 1971.


[attachment=5636]ShouthfleetShoesmall1.jpg[/attachment]

Turnshoe example of the Latchet shoe type from Asjut in upper Egypt not later then 700AD, but could be as early as the 3rd century. Asjut has produced many shoes similar to Styles in the west in this case as a typical turnshoe construction, the colour of the original was Red and although faded is still good.

[attachment=5635]LatchetturnshoeAsjutsmall.jpg[/attachment]

Source: Deutsches Leder Museum (Offenbach) Katalog Heft 6.
Material: Goatshin, cowhide sole.
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#11
Hi Crispianus,

excellent work again! Good to see somebody working as close to the original finds as possible, including the "interior" construction from what I can tell from your pictures.

Quote:Leather used: Upper Veg tanned Goat skin 1.5mm ,insole veg tanned 4mm, mainsole Oak Tanned cowhide 6mm.

May I ask what you used to dye the upper with?
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#12
Wonderful shoes Ivor!
Robert Vermaat
MODERATOR
FECTIO Late Romans
THE CAUSE OF WAR MUST BE JUST
(Maurikios-Strategikon, book VIII.2: Maxim 12)
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#13
Thanks again for your kind words.. :-)

Martin the red dye is not natural though the leather is veg tanned, I tried to match the color with some natural Red dye samples that have and several red shoes in the Leather Museum in offenbach with due allowance for time as their 1500 years old, the promblem is more one of fading if these shoes had been displayed in a light protected environment a natural dye is probarbly a better way to go, but as the shoes dont get moved much selective fading seemed to be a issue for the life of the display which is supposed to be of fresh new shoes in a workshop.

More shoes Soon...
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#14
1st century Closed Boots from Mainz etc, these seem to be pretty common finds through out the empire with many being unnailed, all sizes children to adult male.

note on dating, the arch of constantine shows a possible example worn by a Rider this is thought to be from the Hadrianic era, so it seems at least likely that such boots were still in use in the first half of the secound century.

[attachment=5608]CBsmalll.jpg[/attachment]

details of construction: mainly these differ from regular calcai by having the uppers stitched to the mid sole using two threads the soles are attached using the usual tunnel stitching method, an original un-nailed shoe at Offenbach shows some very fine reinforcing stitching on the inside heel insert not visible from the outside. material: Upper and reinforcment Goat skin, insole. midsole and thick outer sole from Cowhide.


[attachment=5609]CBsmall1.jpg[/attachment]

[attachment=5610]CBdetailsmall1.jpg[/attachment]

[attachment=5611]CBdetailsmall2.jpg[/attachment]

Finally a 15 year old example this one with a cow hide upper, though as far as I can see this isnt normal. Originally stitched in an un-authentic method and recently re-built to the calcai standard shown in previous posts, so not strictly speaking a reconstruction.



[attachment=5620]CavalryBootcowsmall.jpg[/attachment]




Sources: personal observations of an original in Offenbach Leather Museum, with thanks to Jutta Göpfrich.
Römische Lederfunde aus Mainz by Jutta Göppfrich
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#15
Perfect work, Ivor
AgrimensorLVCIVS FLAVIVS SINISTER
aka Jos Cremers
member of CORBVLO
ESTE NIX PAX CRISTE NIX
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