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Calling all Archers
There are also at least two archers known from Germay (I believe both are from Mainz), namely Monimus and Iulius Abdes Pantera. Monimus is shown from the waist up, shrouded in his paenula as if it was a very cold day, but Pantera is kitted out in exactly the same way as most other 1st century depictions of standing soldiers from the Rhineland, in a short tunic with military belts and caligae. The only real difference between Pantera and other stones is his bow, whereas other soldiers carry spears or pila. As far as I know the evidence for archers in long robes is limited to Trajan's column.<br>
The picture of the archer from Housteads on your web page is a computer reconstruction which has enhanced what it assumes are the original details of what is now a very worn sculpture. Looking at the original in the Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle-upon-Tyne it is very difficult to determine what some parts actually looked like. For example, he appears to be holding something horizontally at waist height. Is it an extremely short axe, as many people think? Is it some sort of machete as some others think? Or could it even be an arrow, as one person suggested to me? The identification as an axe depends on the exact nature of a small raised line a few inches below the presumed end of the horizontal object. It may indeed have been intended as the edge of an axehead, but then again it may just be a result of later damage. The head of the figure is very small in comparison to the rest of the body (which is itself rather badly proportioned) and is extremely worn. I will leave it to others who have seen it up close more often than I have to make the final call, but according to my understanding there is not enough detail left on the head even to really determine where the helmet starts and the head finishes (or even if he ever had a face). Sorry to dissappoint but I'm afraid that's the way it is.<br>
Who is called \'\'Paul\'\' by no-one other than his wife, parents and brothers.  :!: <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/icon_exclaim.gif" alt=":!:" title="Exclamation" />:!:

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I read you post with great interest. As I havn't seen this tombstone I hadn't realised how worn it was. I have looked at all the pictures in the imagebase and there is only one figure who is wearing a helmet ( the soldier from Hungry) All the rest have bare heads(This doesn't include Calvary tombstones where the soldier is mounted). This makes it quite lightly that he isn't wearing a helmet either and the Bit sticking up is part of the fluting on the top of his niche. As to the axe? it could be a scroll. Some soldiers are shown holding a scroll sometimes vertically and sometimes horizontally.<br>
Aluscladiusmaximus <p></p><i></i>
Bernard Jacobs
Any opinion stated is genally not the opinion of My group or Centurian

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