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Etruscan army, book, best references
Had a request from a Latin teacher for some slice on the Etruscan army. I don't know of any specific books, though osprey on early Rome has some stuff. Other than various paintings, sculpture or tombs, is there one reference point, like a book?
Richard Campbell
Legio XX - Alexandria, Virginia
RAT member #6?
I would like to know about this as well.
The best book I know of is Peter Connolly's "Greece and Rome at War".

There is an Italian book "Gli Eserciti Etruschi" which covers them. It is pretty similar to an Osprey in format. I don't have a copy so can't comment on its usefulness. ... 377365.asp
Peter K
I've heard good stories about the author Fernando Quesada Sanz. Haven't seen nor read his work, but I think it might contains something of your interest.

link from old RAT
Jvrjenivs Peregrinvs Magnvs / FEBRVARIVS
A.K.A. Jurjen Draaisma
CORBVLO and Fectio
Flattered... but I'm afraid my 'Armas de Grecia y Roma' does not really include Etruscans.
AFAIK there is nop good recent introductory synthesis to the subject. I include, however, a list of useful titles, most of them scholarly but legible. Big Grin

I have concentrated on Etruscans, so left Early Romans, Samnites and the like...

Hope this is useful. Yes, I know you asked for a single refertence book... but I cannot provide it except for Stary's (too scholarly) or Fossati's (too Osprey). For a rather general introduction, I'd probably settle for Spivey's chapter

ADAM, A.M.; ROUVERET, A. (1986)
Guerre et societés en Italie au Ve et IVe siècles avant J.C. Les indices fournis par l'armement et les techniques de combat. Table Ronde, Paris 1984. Paris

D'AGOSTINO, B. (1990) "Military Organization and Social Structure in Archaic Etruria" In O.Murray,S.Price(ed.),The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, pp. 58-82. Oxford.

FORESTI, L.A. (2001) "Aspetti della guerra presso gli Etruschi". M. Sordi (ed.) Il pensiero sulla guerra nel mondo antico, pp. 87-100. Milano.

FOSSATI, I. (1987) Gli Esserciti Etruschi. Milano. (That’s the Osprey-like, to be taken with a grain of salt, but full of hard info)

GONZALEZ ROMAN, C. (2000) "Guerra y sociedad entre los etruscos". Veleia 17, 37-50.

HOPKINS, C. (1964) "The Arms, Equipment and Ceremonial vessels of the Early Etruscan Warriors". Classical Journal 60.1, pp. 214-219.

JANNOT, J.R. (1985) "Les cités etrusques et guerre. Remarques sur la fonction militaire dans la citè étrusque". Ktema 10, pp. 127-141.

JANNOT, J.R. (1986) "Les cavaliers étrusques. Armement, mode de combat, fonction. VII ème au IVème siècle". M.D.A.I. Römische Abteilung 93, pp. 109-133.

JANNOT, J.R. (1991) "Armement, tactique et societé. Réflexions sur l'example de l'Etrurie archaïque". B.S. Frizell, Arte Militare et architettura nuragica, 73-81. Stockholm.

KEURS, E. ter (2000) "Warfare in and around Etruria in the Archaic and classical periods" Slingshot 212, 36-39. (That’s from the ‘amateur’ Society of Ancients bulletin, that however contains lots of good stuff)

LUBTCHANSKY, N. (2005) Le cavalier Tyrrhénien. Représentations équestres dans l'Italie archaïque. Bibliotheque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome 320. Rome

MARTINELLI, M. (1998) "Guerra e controllo del territorio in Etruria tra Età del Bronzo ed Età del Ferro". M.Pearce,M.Tosi(eds.),Third Annual Meeting of the EAA, vol. I. BAR IS, 717, pp. 51-54. Oxford,

MARTINELLI, M. (2006) La lancia, la spada, il cavallo. Il fenomeno guerra nell Étruria e nell'Italia centrale tra età del bronzo ed età del ferro. Toscana Beni Culturali, 7. Firenze.

QUESADA SANZ, F. (1991) "En torno al origen y procedencia de la falcata ibérica". La presencia de material etrusco en la P. Ibérica, 475-543. Barcelona.

SAULNIER, C. (1980) L'armee et la guerre dans le monde etrusco-romain (VIII-IV s.). Paris.

SMALL, A. (2000) "The use of javelins in central and south Italy in the 4th century BC". D. Ridgway(ed) Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting. Hom. Ellen McNamara, pp. 221-234. London.

SPIVEY, N.; STODDART, S. (1990) Etruscan Italy. An Archaeological History. London, Batsford (the chapter on warfare can be useful)

STARY, P.F. (1979) "Foreign elements in Etruscan Arms and Armour, 8th to 3rd centuries B.C.". PPS 45, pp. 179-206.

STARY, P.F. (1981) Zur Eisenzeitlichen Bewaffnung und Kampfesweise in Mittelitalien (ca 9 bis 6 Jh. v, Chr.). Marburger Studien zur vor-und frügeschichte 3, 2 vols.

TALOCCHINI, A. (1944) "Rassegna tipologica delle armi racolte nel Museo Topografico dell'Etruria. Parte I: Etruria Meridionale" Studi Etruschi 18, 269 ss.
That is superb! Many thanks. I have run into so many Italian reenactors on Facebook who only write in Italian that I am picking some up by osmosis.
Richard Campbell
Legio XX - Alexandria, Virginia
RAT member #6?
To add to Fernando's bibliography, I touch on Etruscan military organisation and use of manipular tactics in Roman Conquests: Italy (Pen and Sword 2009).

Dan Diffendale's Italica website is an excellent resource, especially the section on central Italian panoplies:



Peter Connoly's "Hannibal and the Enemies of Rome" is a nice source

Etruscan page 1 ... uscan1.jpg
Etruscan page 2 ... uscan2.jpg

Than here are some later Etruscans

Later Etruscan page 1 ... scans1.jpg
Later Etruscan page 2 ... scans2.jpg
Todd Franks

"The whole race is madly fond of war, high spirited and quick to battle, but otherwise straightforward and not of evil character." - Strabo on the Celts
Thanks for the links. I have the Connoly books (and they are quite exaustive), but there is a real gap about Etruscan Army publications, especially in the late etruscans, at the time of the wer against italian-greeks and the roman conquest (V-III centuru b.C.).
The italian books mentioned (Martinelli 2006: about the arcaic etruscans and villanovian, and the Fossati 1987 about the army, but has quite poor illustrations and pictures) are well done but of little use in practical reenactment of the late etruscan period...
At least I can see where to focus my researches.


a.k.a. Larth Kuritianas
a.k.a. Ludovico il Calvo
ready to go for battle!
Such a shame the Emperor Claudius' history of the Etruscans didn't survive...
Moi Watson

Life should NOT be a journey to the grave with the intention of arriving safely in an attractive and well preserved body, but rather to skid in sideways, Merlot in one hand, Cigar in the other; body thoroughly used up, totally worn out, and screaming "WOO HOO, what a ride!

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