Full Version: What legions did Trajan take to Dacia?
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So far I have a number of 11 total legions, including the 2 he raised, XXX Ulpia Victrix and II Trajana Fortis. From the few bits and pieces I've found that these legions were there as well:

• XIV Gemina
• V Alaudae
• IV Flavia Felix
• I Adiutrix

Does anyone know what other legions participated in either the first, second or both operations?
I Minervia is shown on Traian's column. During the Dacian war they were commanded by Hadrianus, later emperor.
VII Claudia
I just looked at your list again. Sorry I didn't notice it before but Traian can't have taken V Alaudae with him it was lost/remains disbanded during the Batavian revolt during Vespasianus reign.
Source : Trajan, Optimus Princeps - Julian Bennett

Legions : IV Flavia Firma, XIII Gemina

At the time of the first Dacian War there were 90 auxiliary regiments along the Ister : 21 alae, 33 cohortes equitatae, 25 cohortes peditatae, 10 cohortes sagittariae.
Trajan also could call upon a number of nationes and symmachiarii. "De metatione castrorum" mentions the involvement of 500 Palmyrenes, 900 Getae, 700 Daci, 500 Britons and 700 Cantabri. In addition there was some Moorish cavalry led by Lusius Quietus, according to Dio.
Reinforcements came from Legio I Flavia Minervia pia fidelis, Legio XI Claudia pia fidelis and eastern vexillations from Legio IV Scythica, XII Fulminata and an unknown legion.There was even a detachment from the pedites singulares Brittanniciani.
Quote:So far I have a number of 11 total legions ...

There were eight or nine legions stationed on the Danube around AD 100, so we can probably assume that many/most took part.
  • I Adiutrix (Brigetio)
    II Adiutrix (Aquincum)
    XIII Gemina (Vindobona)
    XIV Gemina (Ad Flexum?)
    XV Apollinaris (Carnuntum)
    IV Flavia (Singidunum)
    VII Claudia (Viminacium)
    I Italica (Novae)
    V Macedonica (Oescus)

In addition (and besides vexillations from the eastern legions), the following entire legions appear to have been summoned for the First Dacian War (though only I Minervia definitely saw active service; the others perhaps performed garrison duties):
  • I Minervia (Bonna)
    X Gemina (Noviomagus)
    XI Claudia (Vindonissa)

With the addition of II Traiana and XXX Ulpia for the Second Dacian War, there may have been (elements of) 12 legions involved.

The key text -- which I am ashamed to say I have never read -- is probably Karl Strobel's Untersuchungen zu den Dakerkriegen Trajans. Studien zur Geschichte des mittleren und unteren Donauraumes in der Hohen Kaiserzeit (Habelt, Bonn 1984: Antiquitas, Reihe 1, 33) (ISBN 3-7749-2021).
(I missed your reply, Geert, while I was writing my own!)

Quote:"De metatione castrorum" mentions the involvement of 500 Palmyrenes, 900 Getae, 700 Daci, 500 Britons and 700 Cantabri.

btw Note that the dating of the De munitionibus castrorum has been hotly disputed and may not (a) apply to Trajan's reign, or (b) refer to an historical event at all. Unless I've missed something ...?
I didn't know that. I just used the book to give some additional information.
In fact, in the Dacian War you could say that Trajan used army units from all over the Roman World. He must have had an impressive host to give battle to the Dacians.
There is a huge problem with IIII Flavia in Singidunum before the Dacian wars. In fact its traces could not be dated in Singidunum before Hadrians period.
Remains of castra legionis IIII Flaviae were not built before Hadrian. Remains of dubious earth-palisade fortification could not be connected to any millitary unit since that just 15 m of fossa were dug. Earliest epigrafic evidence is from II century without precise dating. Ptolomeys note on IIII Flavia in Singidunum is the most certain date to start from.
My sugestion is that it could be in VIminacium. Earliest tombstones (without Dis Manibus formula) in VIminacium belong to soldiers of IIII Flavia, not VII Claudia in fact???
Quote:There is a huge problem with IIII Flavia in Singidunum before the Dacian wars ... My suggestion is that it could be in Viminacium.
Off hand, I don't know the latest dating evidence from Burnum and Tilurium, which would've been vacated when IV Flavia and VII Claudia moved up to the Danube.

Still ... it would be no fun if we knew all the answers. Smile
Vexillationes of XXII Primigenia and XX Valeria Victrix too:
From: [url:3m1unm1o][/url]

And this could be of some interest:

"The participation of a Cyprian cohort in the Dacian wars has long been known from a military diploma dated February 110, recording the granting of Roman citizenshipand other privileges to veterans of the Dacian wars.8A similar diploma, dated to October 109 and found at Ranovac in north-eastern Serbia, was published in 1987

Both diplomas list a number of units, veterans of which benefit from the emperor's decree, and in each list, the cohors IIII Cypria c(ivium) R(omanorum) appears. Thetext of the Ranovac diploma is as follows:

Imp(erator) Caesar divi Nervae f(ilius) Nerva Trai/anus Aug(ustus) Germ(anicus)Dacicus pontif(ex) maxim(us) / tribunic(ia) potestat(e) XIII imp(erator) VI co(n)s(ul) Vp(ater) p(atriae) / equitibus et peditibus qui militaverunt / in alis tribus et cohortibusdecem et sex / quae appellantur I c(ivium) R(omanorum) et II FlaviaComma/genor(um) sagittaria et II Pannonior(um) vetera/na et I Brittonum M(miliaria)Ulpia torquata c(ivium) R(omanorum) et / {et} I Britannica M(miliaria) c(ivium)R(omanorum) et I Ituraeor(um) et I Thra/cum c(ivium) R(omanorum) et I Aug(usta)Ituraeor(um) et I Vindelicor(um) c(ivium) R(omanorum) / p(ia) f(idelis) et IPannonior(um) veterana et I Montanor(um) / et II Gallor(um) Pannonica
Hispanor(um) et II / Britannor(um) M(miliaria) c(ivium) R(omanorum) p(ia) f(idelis) etII Gallor(um) Macedonica / et III Campestris c(ivium) R(omanorum) et IIII Cypriac(ivium) R(omanorum) et V / Gallor(um) et VIII Raetorum et sunt in Dacia / subD(ecimo) Terentio Scauriano quinis et vicenis / pluribusve stipendiis emeritis dimissis/ honesta missione a Iulio Sabino quorum / nomina subscripta sunt ipsis liberisposte/risque eorum civitatem dedit et conubium / cum uxoribus quas tunc habuissentcum / est civitas iis data aut si qui caelibes essent / cum iis quas postea duxissentdumtaxat / singuli singulas pr(idie) Idus Oct(obres) / C(aio) Iulio Proculo C(aio)Aburnio Valente co(n)s(ulibus) / coh(ortis) I Montanor(um) cui prae(e)st / CorneliusFelicior / ex pedite / M(arco) Herennio M(arci) f(ilio) Polymitae Berens(i?) / et Ianuariof(ilio) eius et Marcello f(ilio) eius / et Lucanae fil(iae) eius / descriptum et recognitumex tabula aene/a quae fixa est Romae in muro post tem/plum divi Aug(usti) ad Minervam

“The emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan Augustus Germanicus, conqueror of Dacia, son of the deified Nerva, pontifex maximus, holding tribunician authority for the thirteenthtime, proclaimed imperator six times, consul five times, father of the country, has granted citizenship to riders and infantrymen fighting in sixteen troops, tribes andcohorts, namely: the First unit of Roman Citizens; the Second Flavian unit of archersfrom Commagene; the Second Pannonian veteran unit; the First British Milliary unit (i.e. unit of double the standard size) decorated with the wreath, of Roman citizens;the First British Milliary unit of Roman citizens; the First Ituraean; the First Thracian unit of Roman Citizens; the First Ituraean Augusta; the First Vindelican, loyal andfaithful unit of Roman citizens; the First Pannonian veteran unit; the First unit of Mountaineers; the First Pannonian unit of Gauls; the Second Pannonian unit ofGauls; the Second unit of Spaniards; the Second British loyal and faithful milliary unitof Roman citizens; the Second Macedonian unit of Gauls; the Third Plains unit of Roman citizens; the Fourth Cyprian unit of Roman citizens; the Fifth unit of Gauls; theEighth unit of Raetians, all of which units are in Dacia under the command of Decimus Terentius Scaurianus, who have served twenty-five years or more and beendischarged, whose names are listed below and who have received their honorable discharge from Julius Sabinus; grants citizenship to themselves, their children anddescendants; also the right of legal marriage with their partners at the time ofreceiving the citizenship, or if they have none, to whomever they wish to marry at a later date, to the extent of one spouse each. Given on the day before the Ides ofOctober in the consulate of Caius Julius Proculus and Caius Aburnius Valens."
While I had taken the text from the very first PDF you mention, I had not gotten the drawing of the original diploma, thanks!

Ok, so far the list includes:

Legions as recorded being there:

• XIV Gemina
• IV Flavia Felix
• I Adiutrix
• I Minerva
• VII Claudia
• X Gemina
• II Trajana Fortis
• XXX Ulpia Victrix

Total - 8

Legions with possible involvement:

XIII Gemina (Vindobona)
XV Apollinaris (Carnuntum)
I Italica (Novae)
II Adiutrix (Aquincum)

Legions with Vexilations:

• XXII Primigenia
• XX Valeria Victrix
Forgotten II Adiutrix? And it's Mineruia, not Minerua, Traiana, not Trajana... Big Grin wink:


P.S. "J" letter does not exist in classic latin, like the "V" that is just "U"...
See here:
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