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What were the typical dimensions (approximately) of the individual lames?
Actual finds are discussed:

"The normal fragments were found in six regular sizes. They varied in width from 3 to 6 cm.; where the whole piece was found, the length was approximately twice the width. All were pierced with holes for attachment; the regular arrangement was three along one end, one on the other, and two along each side. On more than half the examples of each size a flange along the centre was beaten out from back to front."

This may also be of some interest: D’Amato, Raffaele Dott. A Prôtospatharios, Magistros, and Strategos Autokrator of 11th cent. : the equipment of Georgios Maniakes and his army according to the Skylitzes Matritensis miniatures and other artistic sources of the middle Byzantine period :

Another issue of Porphyria has a reconstruction of John Tzimiskes Immortal guard unit - the text is in
Cheers Peter Big Grin
The fresco of Joshua (from church of St Lucas): ... -Lucas.jpg

Well known for its depiction of the tubular nature of the upper arm defences. Though the transition between klivanion and sleeve is not convincing.

There is something else of interest (apart from the cloth covered helmet and throat-neck defences) which puzzles me.

There seem to be too many layers of cloth.
The klivanion and skirt/upper arm defences have a light coloured garment beneath them ending at the elbow, below the skirt defences the leggings and the bottom of the tunic are shown in a definite green. The forearms are, however, in a grey to greenish-grey covering, with a gold band, plus the treatment of the surface of this garment is reticulate not smooth like the bottom of the tunic (or the surface of the shoulder and skirt lames). Finally there appears to be the end of the sleeve of a white garment showing beneath the grey sleeve at the wrist. If the forearm merely shows the sleeve of the tunic then it should be of the same smooth green (almost lime-green) as the bottom of the tunic.

Am I the only one to see the suggestion of mail sleeves? is possible, but not certain. Alas, I am no expert on the techniques of Byzantine era mosaicists and cannot give a definite nod either way. The most important rule of thumb that I have been taught is to remember that any singular depiction may very well just be artistic license and/or ignorance of detail. Be sure, however, that that does not rule out your suggestion. Are there any other depictions of that sort of sleeve?
Dr. T. Dawson has done an excellent job and has good documentation.

Best regards
Ladies and gentlemen I would like your help concerning the second battel of Cannae (Ofante) 1018.
I know the leaders and I have some idea about Norman chroniclers.

But I cannot find any details of the actual battle.

Some poeple think that Basil II sent Varangian guards to Boiannes.
I doubt it. Probably they were just Russian mercenaries. In that time it would probably be a mix of Scandinavians and Slavs.

We know that Normans and Lombards were crushed.
In my opinion it was that: behind steady spearmen the Byzantine archers "softened" the knights and then Boioannes counter attacked with cavalry.

Anybody knows better or other sources.

Kind regards
I apologize for the brevity of this reply Hoplite14gr (I'm in a hurry), but I know in the Alexiad, Alexios I ordered his archers to fire at the mounts and then attack the unhorsed knights. I know this is some 70 years later, but it is very possible, if not probable, that your opinion is correct; but I would add that the infantry supported the cavalry in the attack. Just my two cents.
Thanks. Actually I think that T. Dawsons "Byzantine Infantryman" gives insight into this.

Kind regards
I very much enjoyed Dawson's book. I would love to see him publish a few more volumes about arms and armor of the Eastern Romans. David Nicolle is all we have now concerning serious scholarship on the specific topic (as far as I know), and I am not crazy about his work.
Found a lovely ceramic bowl fragment. Digenes Akritas slaying the dragon, excavated in the Athenian agora. Now by the style I'd say it is about 12th or 13th C. Digenis appears to be wearing a nice kabadion with split sleeves. Of more interest are the plumbata/marzobarboulon in the dragon's neck. From memory, by the 10 th century only heavy cavalry used these short, lead-weighted darts, which were carried in a case. Does anyone have a source for their use so late?
Quote:No, that one is in San Appollinare* Nuovo, Nik. I don't think anyone has ever doubted that the San Vitale mosaic is of Justinian.

* Not sure whether that is spelled right. Can never remember how many Ps and Ls, so I just doubled them both!


Is Sant'Apollinare, like Apollus Big Grin
I have recently expanded the wiki page on the Byzantine army of the Komnenian period:

I thought that it might prove useful as a 'quick reference' resource.

In particular there are very few Byzantine military images on the wikimedia commons, from which people can extract to illustrate relevant articles. If anyone has 'out of copyright' images it would be a useful place to put them to make them more widely available.

Ah, very good, Urselius. I'll be sure to check that out.
Nice article Martin. I like that you mentioned the "Latinikon" regiment.
I must translate my article on this unit and post it.

Kind regards
Thanks for the kind comments.

I intend to add a section on tactics and possibly strategy at some point.

I'd be very interested in reading anything on the Latins in Byzantine employ, not a very well explored field.

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