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Anonymous

Is there any good information concerning the training of auxilliaries - most sources I've found so far only seem to talk about the legions.<br>
Thanks<br>
Sam Chapman <p></p><i></i>

Guest

Salve,<br>
<br>
For cavalry training there is more information than for infantry training. The main sources are the <i> Ars tactica/ Techn`e Taktik`e</i> by Arrianus and there are some remarks about auxiliary training in Hadrian's speech to the troops of the army of Numidia (<i> CIL</i> 8, 2532). Training officers (<i> exercitator</i>, <i> hastiliarius</i>, <i> campidoctor</i>) are known for auxiliary units, again primarily the cavalry and some from the later empire. The auxiliary cadre was in part composed of transferred legionaries so similarities in training seem likely. The references to discipline in the <i> auxilia</i> being slacker than in the legions date from the fourth century and may have more to do with the pampered status of elite <i> auxilia palatina</i> and not be representative of auxiliary service conditions in general.<br>
<br>
For the cavalry training read A. Hyland's <i> training the Roman cavalry from Arrian's Ars tactica</i>.<br>
<br>
Regards,<br>
<br>
Sander van Dorst <p></p><i></i>

Guest

Salve,<br>
<br>
Here are some texts relating to auxiliary training officers.<br>
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<i> CIL</i> 2, 4083<br>
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Marti campestri sac(rum) | pro sal(ute) | Imp(eratoris) M(arci) Aur(eli) Commodi | Aug(usti) et equit(um) sing(ularium) | T(itus) Aurel(ius) Decimus | > (centurio) leg(ionis) VII G(eminae) Fel(icis) | praep(ositus) simul et | camp(idoctor) dedic(avit) K(alendis) Mart(iis) | Mamert(ino) et Rufo co(n)s(ulibus)<br>
<br>
'Sacred to Mars of the training field. For the sake of emperor Marcus Auerlius Commodus Augustus and the picked horsemen. Titus Aurelius Decimus, centurion of the <i> legio</i> VII <i> Gemina</i>, commander and at the same time drill master has dedicated this on the Kalends of march when Mamertinus and Rufus were consuls'<br>
<br>
Here a legionary centurion is menitoned as commander and instructor of horse guards. Legionary NCO's, like for instance the famous Tiberius Claudius Maximus, and officers are attested as transferred to positions in auxiliary cavalry units, indicating the elite anture of the small legionary cavalry force.<br>
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<i> AE</i> 1933, 214.<br>
<br>
dedicante] | [C(aio) Do]m[ i ]tio Dextro leg(ato) Aug(usti) | p(ro) pr(aetore) per Ser(vium) Tinae(um) Iust(um) | > (centurionem) leg(ionis) II Tr(aianae) fort(is) praep(ositum) | al(ae) Voc(ontiorum) Sextus Xenocrat(is) | decurio exerc(itator) al(ae) eiusdem | campum cum trib(unali) nov(u)m feci(t?) | | Imp(eratore) Commodo Aug(usto) n(ostro) IIII p(atre) p(atriae) | Aufidio Victorino II co(n)s(ulibus)<br>
<br>
'With Caius Domitius Dextrus delegate of the emperor with the powers of <i> praetor</i> as a dedicant represented by Servius Tinaeus Iustus, centurion of the <i> legio</i> II <i> Traiana fortis</i> and commander of the <i> ala Vocontiorum</i>, Sextus Xenocratis, decurion and training officer of the same <i> ala</i> has built the training ground with the tribunal as new when our emperor Commodus Augustus, father of the fatherland, was consul for the fourth time and Aufidius Victorinus for the second time.'<br>
<br>
This is a rare mention of a training officer belonging to a regular auxiliary unit of the provincial armies rather than to one attached to a guard unit. Appropriatley the officer in charge of training has taken care of rebuilding the exercise ground.<br>
<br>
Regards,<br>
<br>
Sander van Dorst<br>
<i> CIL</i> 8, 2825.<br>
<br>
D(is) M(anibus) s(acrum) | M(arco) Aurellio M(arci) f(ilio) | Pal(atina) Sextiano Os | tia > (centurioni) frumenta | rio exercitato | ri singularium | Imp(eratoris) hastato | leg(ionis) III Aug(ustae) | vix(it) an(nos) XLVIII | Paccia Prima | coniunx et he | res eius marito | piissimo<br>
<br>
'Sacred to the spirits of the departed. To mMarcus Aurelius Sextianus, son of Marcus, from the Palatine voting district from Ostia, <i> centurio frumentarius</i>, training officer of the emperors picked troops, <i> hastatus</i> of <i> legio</i> III <i> Augusta</i> has lived 48 years. Paccia Prima, his wife and heir, to her most dutiful husband.'<br>
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The <i> frumentarii</i>, 'grain men', were originally in charge of the food supply, but they developed into a military intelligence unitwhich became notorious as its complement was at times used for political assasinations. The <i> singulares imperatoris</i> are the imperial horse guard, more commonly called the <i> equites singulares Augusti</i>. The <i> hastatus</i> probably refers to the centurion's title. In this case it is again a legionary officer who is appointed to train soldiers of a unit drawn from auxiliaries.<br>
<br>
Regards,<br>
<br>
Sander van Dorst <p></p><i></i>