Full Version: 48 BC: The Battle of Pharsalus
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Steven James has posted another paper on  Abstract and link below:

Abstract: This paper is an in-depth analysis of the battle of Pharsalus and provides an breakdown of both Caesar and Pompey’s armies. The size, organisation, frontage and depth of the armies and the legions involved on both sides have been fully investigated. The conclusions and tactics of both Caesar and Pompey as found here contravene conventional thinking about the battle of Pharsalus, yet still closely adhere to the accounts of Appian, Caesar, Cassius Dio, Eutropius, Florus, Orosius and Plutarch. At Pharsalus, it took Caesar’s army of 37,000 men less than one hour to defeat Pompey’s army of 63,000 men.
I’ve updated Orosius claim that Pompey’s army consisted of 40,000 infantry and 1,100 cavalry. Orosius has definitely confused Caesar’s army for Pompey’s army. Orosius’ figure of 40,000 infantry includes the officers and supernumeraries for Caesar’s army, which has then been rounded to 40,000 infantry.
Florus’ figure of over 300,000 men in total for both armies at Pharsalus has been increased threefold. Orosius’ figure for the levy of 225 BC has also been increased threefold. Appian’s claim of both armies being recorded at 400,000 men and Florus’ 300,000 men when subtracted equals 100,000 men, which is close to my own calculations. A threefold pattern emerges and like everything, it must come from the same source. I’d love to know the story behind this, but I’m not hopeful.
I’ve found two accounts listing Roman losses that are actually the number of men that survived the battle. One such source was Valerius Antias as stated by Livy. By adding Valerius Antias’ claim of how many were lost (a lot) and comparing this with another source giving the losses which were smaller, the combined numbers worked out to be exact number of men in that particular army. The number of enemy killed as given by Valerius Antias matches the number of Roman reinforcements, given by Livy at about 5,000 men.