Full Version: A Selective Examination of Livy's Military Campaigns
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Steven James has published a third paper on  This and his earlier papers can be read following this link:

Abstract: Building on Polybius’ Telamon campaign, this paper examines nine military campaigns as described by Livy, beginning with Rome’s mobilisation against Hannibal in 219 BC. The remaining eight campaigns cover the period from 192 BC to 168 BC. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problems arising from the ancient practice of rounding the numbers and the other practice, commonly found in the writings of Polybius, and that is of embedding the cavalry numbers with the infantry numbers. The basic problem with Livy’s numbers is he or his source has taken the number of legions levied, and from this total has distributed them among the various commanders allocated legions and those commanders allocated reinforcements.
Michael this is great thanks for the info