07-04-2014, 02:51 PM

Because it's now deeply rooted in my understandings and belief in the 'rank structure' (and hence number of cornicen's, for example) - let alone the root base for my organisational theory (soon maybe........), I thought I would try and defend it.

The sources are Polybius and Livy - the detail of the 4,200 legion and related to the understanding that it's also linked to the instances of 4,000.

I do not know why many more recent researchers have possibly miscalculated (cf velites = 1,200) - but perhaps forum members know more....?

But I see:

- 4,200 total for the legion picked by 6 of the 24 total Tribunes appointed for the total army

- Consisting of 4,000 infantry:

- 1,200 hastati

- 1,200 principes

- 600 triarii

- 1,000 velites (by deduction - Polybius doesn't specify)

The remaining 200 are the 'officers' - in pairs per maniple

- 60 centurions

- 60 optios

- 60 signifers

Which leaves 20 unaccounted for and Polybius doesn't specify. From his camp account, however (let alone anything else) he mentions 'trumpets' (translated). I suspect therefore that the 20 are the cornicen's, without inventing another troop type.

That's not in isolation, however, for I also look forward. The 'enhanced' legion numbers 5,000 - so that's 800 extra. The triarii maniples/centuries are brought to full strength by that addition (exactly); which leads directly to the Late Republic numbers of:

10 cohorts each of: 6 x centuries of 80; 6 x centurions; 6 x optios; 6 x signifers; and (therefore) 2 cornicens = 500 each (a (now standard) cohors peditatae quingenaria).

Effectively 300+ years of a 'standardized' legion structure - from whenever the manpiular legion begins to the Imperial/Augustan Reforms (sic).

That's why I believe in so few cornicen's and also no tesserarius additional officer.

One of the Tribunes is in command of the legion (by rotation) and the other 5 would take control of 1/5th of the battle-lines (10 centuries worth), on a two-maniple frontage; hence why I think the cornicen's would be attached to them and potentially the Consul - giving army-level orders and possibly (because it's incredibly useful) acting as runners.

By the Late Republic, if cohorts are operating detached, then 2 cornicen's is the smallest number useful and would be with the pilus prior.

Are there other possible permutations - yes, but I have seen no evidence in the numbers. Both the numbers of velites (although supported by the camping detail and the link to the later legion) and the cornicens have to be deduced, but both seem to be the most logical (to me).

Please critique.

The sources are Polybius and Livy - the detail of the 4,200 legion and related to the understanding that it's also linked to the instances of 4,000.

I do not know why many more recent researchers have possibly miscalculated (cf velites = 1,200) - but perhaps forum members know more....?

But I see:

- 4,200 total for the legion picked by 6 of the 24 total Tribunes appointed for the total army

- Consisting of 4,000 infantry:

- 1,200 hastati

- 1,200 principes

- 600 triarii

- 1,000 velites (by deduction - Polybius doesn't specify)

The remaining 200 are the 'officers' - in pairs per maniple

- 60 centurions

- 60 optios

- 60 signifers

Which leaves 20 unaccounted for and Polybius doesn't specify. From his camp account, however (let alone anything else) he mentions 'trumpets' (translated). I suspect therefore that the 20 are the cornicen's, without inventing another troop type.

That's not in isolation, however, for I also look forward. The 'enhanced' legion numbers 5,000 - so that's 800 extra. The triarii maniples/centuries are brought to full strength by that addition (exactly); which leads directly to the Late Republic numbers of:

10 cohorts each of: 6 x centuries of 80; 6 x centurions; 6 x optios; 6 x signifers; and (therefore) 2 cornicens = 500 each (a (now standard) cohors peditatae quingenaria).

Effectively 300+ years of a 'standardized' legion structure - from whenever the manpiular legion begins to the Imperial/Augustan Reforms (sic).

That's why I believe in so few cornicen's and also no tesserarius additional officer.

One of the Tribunes is in command of the legion (by rotation) and the other 5 would take control of 1/5th of the battle-lines (10 centuries worth), on a two-maniple frontage; hence why I think the cornicen's would be attached to them and potentially the Consul - giving army-level orders and possibly (because it's incredibly useful) acting as runners.

By the Late Republic, if cohorts are operating detached, then 2 cornicen's is the smallest number useful and would be with the pilus prior.

Are there other possible permutations - yes, but I have seen no evidence in the numbers. Both the numbers of velites (although supported by the camping detail and the link to the later legion) and the cornicens have to be deduced, but both seem to be the most logical (to me).

Please critique.