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Good evening to everybody!
I would like to ask for some information on the Buggenum-type helmet (or Robinson's C and D, or Mauriño's II) and I apologize in advance if my question will be a bit ‘stupid.
Reading past and recent bibliography on this subject I did not completely understand the current opinion of the scholars on this type of helmet.
Quoting M. Feugere (2011, Casques Antiques - N.E.): "the Buggenum-type helmets strongly reminds its predecessors, which have been often confused with. The distinction between the two models is important, because the former have been used from the 4th century BC to the beginning of the 1st century BC, while the Buggenum-type characterizes the years from 50 BC to 10 AD".
So my question is, this helmet is considered a "variety" in the Montefortino’s line or a much independent type related to a circumscribed period of time?

Many thanks for any clarification.
Best!

S.M.
Really interesting question. What makes a Buggenum... a Buggenum? I don't know! Let's see if someone can shed some light on this.
To may understanding the characteristic of the "Buggenum" is more in the type of workmanship and decoration than in the helmet form: The helmet bowl is normally hemispherical to only slightly conical but some also have higher bowls. In contrast to earlier types, the crest knob is normally undecorated and in addition to the "classic" form of a truncated cone may be of spherical, conical, cylindrical or mushroom shape. The helmets are often of inferior workmanship and devoid of decoration, except sometimes for crudely incised lines at the lower rim imitating the earlier cable decoration. The lower rim is normally not as thick as in previous types. The neck guard grows larger and is sometimes slightly sloped downwards. The cheek pieces associated with this helmet type are of “anatomical” form with two modest curves in the front rim exposing the eyes and mouth, a straight rear rim and a curved lower rim following the chin. However, a single unprovenanced helmet has cheek pieces of the type normally associated with Hagenau helmets. A late variant from Cremona has a large but completely horizontal neck guard and very flat and “geometric” cheek pieces with ear cut-out.
I want to say thank-you to Jens, too, because as an American, more familiar with the Robinson classifications, it is extremely useful to understand better the European typologies. As I own a fair number of German language books, which deal with Roman military equipment, and particularly Roman helmets, I really appreciate the better understanding of what characteristics help to fit a helmet into one (or more - like hybrids) typologies.

Thanks!
Thank you very much for your explanation, Jens. In the recent T. Fischer’s book Die Arme der Cesaren, the Buggenum-type helmet is clearly identified as a "variante" of the Montefortino-type (he identifies 3 variants: 1 - variante Cremona; 2 - variante Rieti; 3 - variante Buggenum). While, in the aforementioned book of M. Feugere, this helmet take place in the chapter of the Roman infantry helmets of "italic tradition" (Buggenum-type; Haguenau-type), different from those of "Celtic tradition". Here the Buggenum-type is described as a serial production probably made by manufacturers of the Etruria and Campania, independent from his predecessors…
Waurick treated the Buggenum as a helmet type separate from the Montefortino (which he calls "Kappenhelm") but I believe that today it is commonly seen as a variant in particular in view of the fact that it includes many quite heterogenous specimens.

In contrast to Robinson's system, the "Continental" system is based on the work on many scholars including Lindenschmit, Couissin, Donner-v.Richter, Hoffiller, Bogaers, Radnoti, Waurick, Klumbach, Feugere, Schaaaff, Junkelmann and Fischer and so there is not a single system. For RATers not acquainted with the Continental system, it is broadly as follows (the following is mostly based on Junkelmann and Fischer with a few tweaks):


Montefortino helmets

All helmets of this type are characterized by an integral, not applied crest knob at the apex of the bowl. All helmets of this type lack a brow protector. The bowl ranges from a hemispherical to high, bulbous outline. The material is often rather massive, regularly cast and re-worked. The lower rim is often thickened and has a – normally very small – extension at the back forming a proto-neckguard:

Canosa – More or less hemispherical bowl. The crest knob in the form of a truncated cone is decorated with floral motives (“tree of life”). The lower rim is thickened and often cabled. The remaining bowl has no further decoration. Two rings at the lower end of the neck guard serve to attach the chin strap. The cheek pieces associated with this helmet type are of “anatomical” form with two modest curves in the front rim exposing the eyes and mouth, a straight rear rim and a curved lower rim following the chin.

Cremona – The bowl has a high conical or onion-shaped form. The crest knob in the form of a truncated cone is decorated with floral motives (“tree of life”). The neck-guard remains small. Two rings at the lower end of the neck guard serve to attach the chin strap. The cheek pieces are extremely curved and cut-out at the front.

Rieti – The bowl ranges from high conical to hemispherical. The crest knob in the form of a truncated cone is decorated with floral motives (“tree of life”). The neck guard is decorated with an incised waive ornament (Wellenranke). No helmet of this type has been found with cheek pieces but the double rivet holes for the hinge suggest that cheek pieces were fitted (helmets without cheek pieces often show only a single rivet). The workmanship of these helmets deteriorates over time.

Buggenum – The helmet bowl is normally hemispherical to only slightly conical. The crest knob is now normally undecorated and in addition to the form of a truncated cone may be of spherical, conical, cylindrical or mushroom-shaped form. The helmets are often of inferior workmanship and devoid of decoration, except sometimes for crudely incised lines at the lower rim imitating the earlier cable decoration. The lower rim is no longer as thick as in previous types. The neck guard grows larger and is sometimes slightly sloped downwards. The cheek pieces associated with this helmet type are of “anatomical” form with two modest curves in the front rim exposing the eyes and mouth, a straight rear rim and a curved lower rim following the chin. However, a single unprovenanced helmet has cheek pieces of the type normally associated with Hagenau helmets. A late variant from Cremona has a large but completely horizontal neck guard and very flat and “geometric” cheek pieces with ear cut-out.

Mannheim helmets

The helmets of this type are hemispherical and lack a crest knob or brow protector. Some have the lower rim slightly extended into a proto-neckguard similar to the Montefortino tpyes. The helmet exists in a “light” variant (500 – 800g) made from thinner material and normally more or less devoid of decoration and a “heavier” variant (>1000g) from thicker material with a thickened lower border often with cabled or similar decoration. No helmet of this type has been found with cheek pieces. At least some helmets of this type were fitted with hinged rings for the attachment of a chin strap instead of cheek pieces but other helmets have double rivet holes for the hinge which suggests that cheek pieces may have been fitted.

Hagenau helmets

The helmets of this type are hemispherical or very slightly bulbous and have a neck guard of varying size which is horizontally placed (or only very slightly sloped). In contrast to the Montefortino helmets, the crest knob, if present, is soldered on. The helmets share some new features such as a separate (normally massive) brow guard or feather tubes with some Weisenau helmets. They do not normally feature ear-cut-outs. The helmet bowls generally do not have embossed or applied decoration such as the Weisenau helmets.

Very few helmets of this type are associated with cheek pieces. All of these are simple oblong pieces of sheet metal with two semicircular cut-outs in the front rim for eyes and mouth, a straight rear rim without cut-outs, and a curved lower rim following the chin. They do not normally show embossed or applied decoration (although some cheek pieces of this form which have been found in isolation do have limited embossed decoration). Robinson also associated cheek pieces similar to the Weisenau helmets with this type which is possible but not proven.

Hagenau – The bowl is hemispherical or only very slightly conical/bulbous. The neck guard is horizontal but well-sized. The rear rim is semicircular but the front angular (Wiegemesser)

Haltern – The silhouette is similar to Montefortino helmets – a slightly bulbous bowl, a small to medium neck guard which is horizontal to the helmet rim and does not extend beyond the helmet circumference at the sides (Sichel). The material is often rather massive.

Burlafingen – This type has a large slightly sloped neck guard with a rounded rim all around.

Schaan – This type lacks a crest knob and has a smallish neck guard which is horizontal to the helmet rim and does not extend beyond the helmet circumference at the sides (Sichel).

Western Celtic helmets (Agen)

Iron helmets without neck guard of hemispherical form with a considerable brim and a second rim running all round the helmet a short way above the brim. Oblong cheek pieces with prominent cusps for eyes and mouth, the center protusion between the cusps is often somewhat angular. The cheek pieces generally have a raised central area and also semicircular raised ornaments behind the cusps. The cheek pieces have no ear cut-outs and no neck flanges.

The variant “Boe” has a high conical form and only a single lower rim on the neck which forks out into a separate rim and lower rim on the brow. The variant “Foret de Rouvray” has a “waivy” lower brim similar to the Hellenistic Boetian helmet type and a conical extension to the apex of the helmet. The cheek pieces are also more elongated than usual giving the helmet a very “Hellenized” appearance.

Eastern Celtic helmets

The helmets are made in three parts: a hemispherical bowl, a brow band and a somewhat deeper and sloped neck guard. All parts are riveted together. The open area between brow guard and neck guard creates something similar to the ear cut-out of the Weisenau helmets. The cheek pieces have a curving front (rather than true cusps) and a rather angular rear. They are often embossed with zoomorphic decoration.

Port helmets

The helmets consist of a hemispherical skull and a separate riveted neck guard. Characteristic features of the skull are embossed single-line “eyebrows” on the front and “ribs” or steps in the neck area of the bowl and/or neck guard. All of these are strongly reminiscent of the later Weisenau helmets.

Weisenau helmets

The helmets of this type are hemispherical. They have a neck guard of varying size which is sometimes horizontally placed in the same way as in the Hagenau helmets but often there is a considerable step in the neck area and/or the neck guard is substantially sloped. Helmets of this type normally show some or all of the following features:

• a separate riveted brow-guard which may either by massive or made of sheet folded over at 90 degrees;

• a separate riveted or soldered crest attachment in the form of either (i) a crest knob, (ii) a “water-skin” shaped piece of metal sheet with one or several tunnels into which the foot of a crest-holder is sled or (iii) a circular box with an L-shaped opening into which the foot of a crest holder is twisted;

• cut-outs for the ears with ear-protectors riveted or soldered or worked out of the material;

• a separate metal lining along all or some rims;

• decorative rivets, sometimes including hollow rivets filled with class or coral;

• embossed (or sometimes applied) decoration typically including (a) eye-brows with one to three ribs (or sometimes eyes) at the top of the brow area, (b) one or several horizontal ribs emphasizing the step in the neck, and/or © a double bow shaped ornament on the neck guard with one arch of the bow extending on each side of a central rivet securing the loop for the chin strap;

• cheek pieces with cut-outs for eyes, mouth and ears, often with a rear flange extension protecting the throat; the cheek pieces are normally embossed with a semicircular ornament below the hinges and two more semicircular ornaments emphasizing the frontal cut-outs; the centre of the cheek pieces is often raised;

• a separate carrying handle fixed to the neck guard.

Guttmann – These helmets lack a brow guard and the outline is very close to the Pseudo-Attic helmet types with a relatively deep step in the neck combined with a small neckguard. The cheek pieces have only moderately curved front rims and rear rims without cut-outs or flanges.

Nijmegen/Moro Boti – These helmets are somewhat primitive in their decoration and/or workmanship and have a horizontal or almost horizontal neck guard. Ear cut-outs are either not present or very shallow. The variant “Nijmegen” has a modest neck guard which does not extend beyond the sides of the helmet. The variant “Moro Boti” has a quite extensive but flat neck guard.

Oberaden/Verdun – These helmets show all “classic” Weisenau characteristics. The neck guard is small and horizontal. Ear cut-outs are missing or very shallow. The eyebrows are slim and crisp.

Mainz - These helmets show all “classic” Weisenau characteristics. The step at the neck is relatively deep and/or the neck guard is deep and sloped. The eyebrows are broad.

Cremona – These bronze helmets lack eye-brows. The neck guard is small to mid-size and horizontal. Ear cut-outs are missing or very shallow. Crests are attached with boxes or knobs.

The variant “Gelduba” is made of iron and decorated with applied or embossed crossed broad bands on the bowl and other embossed or applied decoration such as tabulae ansatae, temples etc.

The variant “Niedermömter” is very similar to the Gelduba helmets but has a very large and deep neck guard.

Hebron – These helmets have a well-formed sloping neck guard. The characteristic feature is the neck area which is not straight but sloping and therefore connects bowl and neck guard in a softer way than other helmets.

Brigetio – These helmets are characterized by relatively high bowls with the brow guard, if at all present, sitting high up the helmet. At least some helmets of this type appear to have been designed for use of crossed reinforcements (and not only retrofitted with such reinforcements).

Niederbieber helmets

All helmets of this type are characterized by a mixture of Weisenau (relatively simple decoration, brow guard, ear protectors, neck guard with carrying handle) and Pseudo-Attic (closed ears, cheek pieces encasing the complete face, deep step in the neck) helmet features. The result is a helmet with a hemispherical top with a deep step at the neck and an extensive neck guard which completely encases the head almost down to the shoulders. The bowl is protected by crossed reinforcements. The brow guard is multi-angled. The rivets used to fix the brow guard and neck guard regularly have large conical heads. The cheek pieces are large, cover the ears and overlap at the front. They regularly have flanges to protect the throat. In spite of the covered ears the helmets regularly have ear guards attached or worked out of the helmet.

The majority of helmets have separate crossed skull reinforcements made of sheet metal and forming a small crown in the form of a cross where they meet and are generally plain and unadorned.

The variant “Heddernheim” either has the crossed skull reinforcements embossed from the helmet material or applied as slim cables and instead have a central crest knob which may have supported a crest or streamer. They often have applied bronze sheet on the neck or such applications are imitated by corresponding embossed features. Some helmets of this type are richly decorated with feather décor and reinforcements in the form of snakes.

Pseudo-Attic helmets

All helmets of this type are characterized by a silhouette similar to the Greek Attic helmet type, i.e. a hemispherical skull covering the head from mid-brow down to the neck with ear cut-outs, a moderate to deep “step” covering the neck and a narrow neck guard. The brow area is often emphasized in a way similar to the "Visor" on Attic helmets. This can take the form of an embossed "visor", or of human, animal or floral figures. In later helmets of this type the embossing protrudes much further than in earlier ones and is topped by curved lines giving the helmet a "front-heavy" appearance. In one case this is continued all around the helmet giving a crown like appearance. The cheek pieces are similar to the Weisenau helmets except that they cover the ears and often are decorated with embossed ears at this place, have a “stepped” frontal outline and are decorated with figures or ornaments worked in the same way as the skull. Cheek pieces with ear cut-outs are also found as are masks and visors of the "tuck-in" type on later helmets. Also, there is at least one case of typical "Weisenau" cheek guards with ear coverings so the ear is not exclusive to this type.

Robinson qualified some of these helmets as Auxiliary Cavalry and some as Cavalry Sports. This latter qualification being based either on the use of a mask or on the thinness of the material. With respect to masks, at least those helmets where the mask is attached at the brow level are today generally qualified as combat helmets. Pseudo-Attic helmets often show rivet holes at the sides and the front centre which implies either simultaneous use of a small Kalkriese type mask and cheek pieces or alternating use of cheek pieces and Kops-Plateau type masks. With respect to the thinness of the material this may have been exaggerated by Robinson anyway (exact measurements are hardly ever available). Also the embossing considerably strengthens the defensive properties of the material. Finally, separate skull caps of metal leather or cloth may also have increased the defensive value.

Weiler – The helmets of this type are characterized by single-layer construction made from rather thick, massive material. The decoration, normally embossed locks, is embossed directly from the base material.

Koblenz-Bubenheim - The helmets of this type are characterized by double-layer construction with a massive core material with the decorative outside separately attached, normally in the form of embossed bronze or copper sheet but sometimes also by applying non-metallic materials such as animal hair. Some helmets are decorated by a combination of embossed and applied decoration and therefore are a mix between Weiler and Koblenz-Bubenheim types.

Guisborough – The helmets of this type are characterized by single-layer construction made from thin material, normally bronze. The decoration, now normally embossed animals or figurative decoration rather than locks, is embossed directly from the thin base material. The material is often so thin that the helmets are considered “parade” equipment or it is speculated that they may have had a separate core or skull cap. Whereas normally the helmets are made from a single sheet of material, the variant from Butzbach appears to have been constructed from several pieces (similar to the sheeting of Koblenz-Bubenheim helmets). The “Phrygian” variant lacks a neck protection (this was added in the form of mail or scale) and has the outline of a Phrygian cap worked out of the skull.

Slavonski Brod - There are at least two helmets without stratigraphic dating context which fall into the Pseudo-Attic category but share certain unique features: They are made from bronze sheet and decorated with simple embossed lines following the rim. They are "deeper" in the neck than most other helmets of this category. They have a small "peak" of an unformed blob of metal giving them a decidedly "unfinished" appearance. Except for the strange peak these helmets look very much like "proto-Niederbieber" helmets.

Pseudo-Corinthian helmets

All helmets of this type are characterized by a skull which is rendered in the form of a Greek Corinthian type helmet pushed upwards to sit on top of the head. The hair crest of the Greek original is replaced by an embossed metal crest terminating in an eagle head. These helmets are likely not a direct derivative of the Italian Pseudo-Corinthian helmets but the design was probably conveyed through depictions of gods and heroes in Roman art of the first centuries AD which regularly show this type of helmet.

In view of the hinge which sits rather impractically high on the head, these helmets are more akin to the mask helmets than to the Pseudo-Attic helmets.

Mask Helmets

Kalkriese – Slim face mask fixed by central hinge. The mask requires the addition of cheek pieces to be held in place. The brow is covered by the helmet bowl. The material is fairly thick, often iron plated with bronze or copper sheet.

Nijmegen Kops Plateau – Similar to Kalkriese but the mask extends to cover the sides of the face up to the ears. Normally metal ears are worked out of the helmet. A variant is the Vice type where the cheeks of the mask are covered by embossed cheek-pieces.

Ribchester – This is the first mask type which requires a special helmet bowl and cannot be worn with normal “combat” helmet. The mask now also covers the brow which is covered by a diadem, sometimes only by one or more rows of locks. The lower rim has protective extensions. The rim of the helmet skull and the central hinge for the mask sit high upon the forehead. A large round or angular peek points upwards at 45 degrees. The Ribchester type also retains the ears and ear protectors of the earlier types.

Herzogenburg – The mask is a likeness of an idealized young man with curled hair, in a variant shows the “anastole” of Alexander. In contrast to the Ribchester type, the mask shows no diadem and no rim extensions and the locks covers the upper ridge in a rounded curve. The skull is completely covered with locks but may exhibit additional features such as a diadem or wreath. The skull has no peek.

Silistra – Similar to the Herzogenburg type but the skull is not covered with locks but with an embossed “helmet” or other decoration.

Resca/Weißenburg – The female variant of the Herzogenburg type. The hairdo is regularly ornamental terminating in a peek on the top of the head giving the helmet a rhomboid outline. The hair is often decorated with ornate diadems and other embellishments. The helmets of this type range from relatively realistic variants to highly stylized variants. The locks are much shallower and less realistic than with the male types, often nor more than parallel embossed lines.

Straubing/Eining – Highly stylized helmets of oriental female type.
Thanks for the classification, Jens.

I´m more familiar with Robinson´s one