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I was wondering if you guys could help me with some translations. What would the Romans have called their siege walls they used at Numantia and Alesia? The wooden and earthen palisades and wooden towers they used to hem in the enemy. I also would assume they would have a few wooden gates. What would you call them? I know "porta", but what about wooden porta or palisade porta or something? Smile Any help would be appreciated.
The word Caesar uses at Alesia is munitionis (from munitio for defenses or fortifications). Whole line is "Eius munitionis quae ab Romanis instituebatur circuitus XI milia passuum tenebat." or "The circuit of that fortification, which was commenced by the Romans, comprised eleven miles." (Caesar Bellum Gallicum 7.69).

Not sure how much that helps, but just for future reference the Perseus website ( ) is great for this type of thing as it often has both the Latin and English texts available and lets you switch back and forth to see what words are being used in various ancient texts.
Quote:What would the Romans have called their siege walls they used at Numantia and Alesia?
Well, they didn't call them circumvallations!

Jespah2000 is correct when he says that Caesar called the siegeworks at Alesia munitiones ("fortifications"). Similarly, Livy refers to the siegeworks at Ambracia as munimenta ("fortifications"), but Caesar refers to his general Caninius Rebilus's works at Uxellodunum both as munitiones ("fortifications") and as opera ("works"). At Corfinium, Caesar refers to the encircling siegeworks both as a circummunitio ("surrounding fortification") and as opera ("works"). Greek authors (like Polybius) refer to erga ("works"),

More often, authors simply name the individual components: the vallum fossaque ("palisade and ditch"), for example, or the agger ac vallum ("palisaded rampart"). At Numantia, Appian refers only to a wall. Hope that helps.
That does help greatly. Gives me a starting point! Big Grin