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jewish revolt in palestine
#1
I am curious if any one had info on the troops that were stationed in various garrisons especially in caesarea maritima at the out break in 66. particularly were they of the tenth legion or were they of another legion. Also, when in a situation like palestine where there was not an entire legion stationed there, was it the auxillaries that maintained order or was it , say , various cohorts that took up residence on 'frontiers'? Did the auxillaries have actual detatchments of 'real' legionaries as their commanders leaders among the ranks. Great website BTW. I will be here often. <p></p><i></i>
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#2
Salve,<br>
<br>
The same subject came up on the RomanArmy mailing list a couple of weeks ago. Here are parts of my mails on the matter.<br>
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Legionary troops were regularly transferred to the <i> auxilia</i> to serve as NCO's and officers. In most cases they would become part of the auxiliary unit rather than that they were detached. Transfers to the auxiliaries were once thought to have been a type of demotion, but it seems that differences in status were much the same, if not indeed the same. It is thus conceivable that the auxiliary units would have some former legionaries in their ranks, particularly as officers and noncom's.<br>
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As far as can be established the garrison in the days of Pilatus consisted of some six auxiliary units. While there may have been legionaries attached to the governatorial staff (as attested for other provinces without a permanent legionary formation garrisoned there), the current available (published?) evidence does not allow us to be certain. The presence of individual seconded to staff functions is more likely than full detachments of integral legionary subunits.<br>
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Bodyguard duty was always conspicuously entrusted to foreign/peregrine units with citizen counterparts to encourage competition and provide safety guards against divided loyalties among either group. Such bodyguards were likely to be mounted troops (legionary <i> equites legionis</i>, <i> singulares</i>, <i> secutores</i>, <i> speculatores</i>, <i> protectores</i>, auxiliary <i> equites singulares</i>) as well as foot guards (legionary <i> lonchophoroi</i>, <i> soomatophylakes</i> and auxiliary <i> pedites singulares</i>). However the use of legionary counterparts to auxiliary guards in provinces without a permanent garrison is not yet securely attested.<br>
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The use of a Roman name or the full <i> tria nomina</i> is no longer considered conclusive proof of ethnic origin or citizenship. Troops would be given a Roman name on entry in military service and their mothers may well have known them by a different one (see the letters of Egyptian recruits in Davies' <i> Service in the Roman army</i>). This does not appear to have been securely linked to citizen status.<br>
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There were some three thousand <i> Sebastènoi</i> after Herod the Great's reign according to <i> BJ</i> 2.52, which were part of the royal army led by officers called Rufus (Roufos) and Gratus (Gratos). These may have been recruited from the (gentile) population of Sebastè and may have been grouped in five infantry and one cavalry units, one cohort certainly attested as numbered I, the V being an unsure reading. In <i> BJ</i> 2.74 <i> Sebastènoi</i> are differentiated from both royal army troops and Roman legionaries. They included an <i> ilè Sebastènoon</i> according to <i> BJ</i> 2.236 and an <i> ala</i> I <i> Sebastenorum</i> is present on a later diploma. The <i> Sebastènoi</i> are probably not identical to the <i> speira Sebastè</i> of the Acts, which would be in Latin <i> cohors Augusta</i> (cf AE 1925,121 with a <i> hekatontarchès spirès Augoustès</i>) rather than <i> cohors Sebastena</i>.<br>
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AE 1948, 0150.<br>
] Arr[untianus 3] / tesse[rarius 3] / coh(ortis] V [Augustae(?) 3] / c(ivium) R(omanorum) [Sebastenae(?) 3] / per C(aium) [3] / Sabin[um<br>
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Possibly a <i> cohors</i> VIII <i> Raetorum</i> according to M.P. Speidel rather than this reading (note 4 in 'The Roman army in Judea under the procurators').<br>
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AE 1948, 0151.<br>
miles coh(ortis) 3] / c(ivium) Romanorum m(illiariae)S[ebastenae 3] / Treblan[us 3] / Rufus S[3]<br>
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Given the designation of <i> cohors milliaria</i> doubtlessly later than the governorship of Pilatus.<br>
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Speidel suggests in his article that the <i> speira Italikè</i> from the Acts may have been the auxiliary unit mentioned in CIL III, 13483a<br>
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Proculus/ Rabili f(ilius) Col(lina tribu) / Philadel(phia) mil(itavit) / optio coh(ortis) II / Italic(ae) c(ivium) R(omanorum) 7 (centuria) Fa[us] / tini ex vexil(latione) sa / git(tariorum) exer(citus) Syriaci / stip(endiorum) VII vixit an(nos) / XXVI / Apuleius frate® / f(aciendum)<br>
c(uravit)<br>
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'Proculus, son of Rabilis of the Collina voting district from Philadelphia has done military service as <i> optio</i> of the Second Italic Cohort of Roman citizens in the century of Faustinus from the task force of archers of the Syrian army with seven years duty. He has lived for 26 years. His brother Apuleius has taken care of construction.'<br>
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Since the area of Judea was part of the Syrian province, it recieved a special administrative organisation. Its garrison nevertheless would remain technically part of the provincial army of Syria. Both the Italic and the Augustan cohort are thus more likely to have been auxiliary units than legionary units. As I wrote in my previous mail, the governor's staff may have included legionaries, but this has not yet been corroberated by positive evidence. It is likely rather than certain.<br>
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Regards,<br>
<br>
Sander van Dorst<br>
<p></p><i></i>
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