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Galea Lining
#1
Purchased two very... *ahem*; Affordable gallic helmets (one for myself and one for my brother) from an Indian or Chinese (made in India, shipped from China) vendor. 

They have all the usual trademarks of a cheap roman helmet (ww2 style liner, welded on neck-plate/brass fitting, belt-style chinstrap and somewhat "flat" cheek plates.
I'll be fixing them up with leather cheekpad liners, leather string straps and carefully reshaping the cheek guards with a ball peen hammer, however I am not certain what to do about the liner. 

I have read both that the liner was simply a leather/padded cap that was seperate from the helmet, and also that they were glued/pinned in place. 

I'd like to get some advice on how to construct a proper liner for a 1st century helmet, and any other tips would be helpful too (i.e. concealing the welded area etc.)
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#2
The short answer is that we really don't know how the Romans lined their helmets. The longer answer is that there as are a few pieces of evidence we can make use of.

First up is the fact that Roman helmets prior to the fourth century AD do not have rivet holes for the attachment of a lining, indicating that either linings were glued in or separate hats were worn under helmets.

Secondly, some organic matter was found adhering to the inside of a helmet found at Newstead. The excavators though it might have been felt and discovered that it became sticky when hot water was applied (why they were exposing a recently excavated helmet to hot water is beyond me, but it may have been a useful discovery nonetheless), suggesting that the (possible) felt might have been glued in place, suggesting itself that the organic matter might have been a fragment of a lining.

Next, Ammianus Marcellinus mentions an episode during a battle in the mid fourth century when he and a comrade had come across a well whose bucket had been lost. Being thirsty and needing water he took off the hat he was wearing under his helmet and, tying it to the rope he lowered it into the well and it absorbed enough water that both men were able to satisfy their thirst, suggesting that the hat was more than a simple hat and may well have contained padding which could then absorb the water.

Lastly, and perhaps supporting Ammianus's statement, the remains of a padded hat in the shape of a phrigian cap were found at Dura (context: mid third century AD) which has extensions which go down over the cheeks, leaving the ears uncovered. It has been suggested that this hat may have been intended to pad a helmet.

I am sure there must be people here who can post up a picture of the cap from Dura, while I have seen re-enactors wearing thick felt skullcaps under their helmets, extrapolating from the possible felt in the Newstead helmet.


Incidentally, this thread should have been posted in the Re-enactment and Reconstruction section.


Crispvs
Who is called \'\'Paul\'\' by no-one other than his wife, parents and brothers. :!: <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/icon_exclaim.gif" alt=":!:" title="Exclamation" />:!:

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#3
(09-03-2017, 01:40 AM)Crispvs Wrote: The short answer is that we really don't know how the Romans lined their helmets.  The longer answer is that there as are a few pieces of evidence we can make use of.

First up is the fact that Roman helmets prior to the fourth century AD do not have rivet holes for the attachment of a lining, indicating that either linings were glued in or separate hats were worn under helmets.

Secondly, some organic matter was found adhering to the inside of a helmet found at Newstead.  The excavators though it might have been felt and discovered that it became sticky when hot water was applied (why they were exposing a recently excavated helmet to hot water is beyond me, but it may have been a useful discovery nonetheless), suggesting that the (possible) felt might have been glued in place, suggesting itself that the organic matter might have been a fragment of a lining.

Next, Ammianus Marcellinus mentions an episode during a battle in the mid fourth century when he and a comrade had come across a well whose bucket had been lost.  Being thirsty and needing water he took off the hat he was wearing under his helmet and, tying it to the rope he lowered it into the well and it absorbed enough water that both men were able to satisfy their thirst, suggesting that the hat was more than a simple hat and may well have contained padding which could then absorb the water.

Lastly, and perhaps supporting Ammianus's statement, the remains of a padded hat in the shape of a phrigian cap were found at Dura (context: mid third century AD) which has extensions which go down over the cheeks, leaving the ears uncovered.  It has been suggested that this hat may have been intended to pad a helmet.

I am sure there must be people here who can post up a picture of the cap from Dura, while I have seen re-enactors wearing thick felt skullcaps under their helmets, extrapolating from the possible felt in the Newstead helmet.


Incidentally, this thread should have been posted in the Re-enactment and Reconstruction section.


Crispvs

Thanks for the informative answer. I'm still a bit wobbly when it comes to forum layouts but I'm getting there :p

Fortunately I'm quite good at sewing so I'll see if I can construct a padded cap or something from an old leather jacket.
I know the type of cap you referred to so we'll see howit goes.
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#4
A helmet with the remains of a felt lining made from sheeps wool has been found at Vindonissa, its a pretty early example it seems and was likely wrapped in a fur lined Leather bag or purpose made cover:

Ein" Fellhelm" aus Vindonissa

you can buy thick felt in sheet form or make your own.... felt works pretty well as a lining for a helmet as long as its fairly thick...
Ivor

"And the four bare walls stand on the seashore. a wreck a skeleton a monument of that instability and vicissitude to which all things human are subject. Not a dwelling within sight, and the farm labourer, and curious traveller, are the only persons that ever visit the scene where once so many thousands were congregated." T.Lewin 1867
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#5
Aristotle says that sea sponge was used to line helmets and greaves. Most likely contenders are the elephant ear sponge and the Mediterranean silk.
Author: Bronze Age Military Equipment, Pen & Sword Books
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